Taxonomy: The science of naming or classifying organisms. Taxonomy: The science of naming or classifying organisms



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Taxonomy: The science of naming or classifying organisms.

  • Taxonomy: The science of naming or classifying organisms.


Classify – To group things together based on similarities.

  • Classify – To group things together based on similarities.

  • Trait – feature that a living thing has

    • _ _
    • _ _
    • _ _


Aristotle (2000+ years ago) – Greek scientist, first person to classify life

  • Aristotle (2000+ years ago) – Greek scientist, first person to classify life

    • Two main groups:
      • PLANTS
      • ANIMALS
    • More specific
      • Trees *Land
      • Shrubs *Water
      • Herbs *Air


Cat / Dog

  • Cat / Dog

    • Land
  • Fly

    • Air / Land
  • Bear

    • Land
  • Shark

    • Water
  • Butterfly

    • Land / Air


Carolus Linnaeus (1735) – Developed a new system

  • Carolus Linnaeus (1735) – Developed a new system

  • Two main groups called Kingdoms

    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Plantae
  • Then he created more specific groups

    • Genus
    • species
    • He gave organisms two names that were based on their traits
      • Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens


Scientific name = Genus and species name

  • Scientific name = Genus and species name

  • Genus name is ALWAYS capitalized.

  • Species name is NEVER capitalized.

  • Both are ALWAYS italicized or underlined.



Timber rattlesnakeCrotalus horridus

  • Timber rattlesnakeCrotalus horridus

  • Electric eel Electrophorus electricus

  • Bengal tiger Panthera tigris

  • Wild cherry tree Prunus aviam



No mistakes about what living thing is being observed or described. Each type of living thing has its own name.

  • No mistakes about what living thing is being observed or described. Each type of living thing has its own name.

  • Scientific names rarely change.

  • Written in the same language all around the world:

  • LATIN



Today, we have 7 groups for classifying living things.

  • Today, we have 7 groups for classifying living things.

    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Primates
    • Family Hominidae
    • Genus Homo
    • species sapiens


Kingdom = Largest group of living things

  • Kingdom = Largest group of living things

  • Kingdom Monera

  • Kingdom Protista

  • Kingdom Fungi

  • Kingdom Plantae

  • Kingdom Animalia





Organisms are classified based on the following ways:

  • Organisms are classified based on the following ways:

    • How related they are
    • Ancestry
    • Body Structures
    • DNA










Ancestor – related organism that lived some time in the past

  • Ancestor – related organism that lived some time in the past

  • Which 2 do you think would have the most ancestors in common?



Homologous structures – similar in structure but differ in function

  • Homologous structures – similar in structure but differ in function

    • Examples
    • Limbs of:
    • Humans
    • Cats
    • Whales
    • Bats




DNA comparisons – Comparing the DNA sequences of organisms can show how closely related they are.

  • DNA comparisons – Comparing the DNA sequences of organisms can show how closely related they are.



PHYLOGENY: Evolutionary history of a species

  • PHYLOGENY: Evolutionary history of a species

  • CLADISTICS: system of taxonomy that reconstructs phylogenies. (determines the sequence in which different groups of organisms evolved)





Identify the out-group.

  • Identify the out-group.

    • Liverworts
  • Name the least common derived trait

    • Seeds
  • List the order in which the in the table would be placed on a cladogram

    • Liverworts – Horsetails – Pine trees




DICHOTOMOUS KEYS:

  • DICHOTOMOUS KEYS:

  • are tools used by scientists to identify specific names of natural objects, such as trees, ferns, wildflowers or insects.



Dichotomous means "divided into TWO parts", so there are always TWO choices in a step to identification, usually in the form of

  • Dichotomous means "divided into TWO parts", so there are always TWO choices in a step to identification, usually in the form of

  • YES OR NO



Always read BOTH choices, even if the first seems to be the logical one at first.

  • Always read BOTH choices, even if the first seems to be the logical one at first.

  • Be sure you understand the meaning of the terms involved. DO NOT GUESS.

  • If the choice is not clear, for whatever reason, try BOTH DIVISIONS. If you end up with two possible answers, read descriptions of the two choices to help you decide.






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