Background to the Scientific Revolution



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Background to the Scientific Revolution

  • Background to the Scientific Revolution

    • Medieval Reliance on Classical Authority
    • Contradictions
    • Artists rely upon observation of nature and make accurate renderings
    • Technological innovations
    • Mathematics
    • Magic
  • Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy

    • Claudius Ptolemy and Aristotle
    • Geocentric Universe
      • Christianized Ptolemaic Universe


Copernicus (1473-1543)

    • Copernicus (1473-1543)
      • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
      • Heliocentric Universe
        • Retains Ptolemy’s epicycles
      • Reaction of the Church
    • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
      • Compromise with ideas of Copernicus and Ptolemy
      • Uraniborg Castle
      • Observations


Jonannes Kepler (2571-1630)

    • Jonannes Kepler (2571-1630)
      • “Music of the Spheres”
      • Three Laws of Planetary Motion
        • Orbits of planets elliptical
        • Speed of planets
        • Planets with large orbits revolve slower than those with smaller orbits
    • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
      • Telescope
      • The Starry Messenger, 1610
      • Trial before the Inquisition
      • Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican, 1632
      • Laws of Motion


Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

    • Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
      • Invents calculus
      • Principia
        • Laws of Motion
        • Mathematical proof of the law of gravity and that the universe operates according to universal laws
  • Advances in Medicine

    • Advances of Galen
      • Animal dissection
      • Four humors
        • Disease an imbalance of humors


Paracelsus (1493-1541)

    • Paracelsus (1493-1541)
      • Medicine as chemistry
      • “Like cures like”
    • Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
      • Human dissection
        • On the Fabric of the Human Body, 1543
      • Corrects Galen
  • Women in the Origins of Modern Science

    • Influence of humanism on female scholarship
    • Informal education
    • Exclusion from universities


Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673)

    • Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673)
    • Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717)
      • Wonderful Metamorphosis and Special Nourishment of Caterpillars
      • Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam
    • Maria Winklemann (1670-1720)
      • Astronomer
      • Rejection of the Berlin Academy


Querelles de Femmes

    • Querelles de Femmes
      • Male perception of the inferiority of women
      • Women reject the argument
      • Science used to support old, traditional views on women
  • Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View

    • René Descrtes (1596-1650)
      • Discourse on Method
        • Rejection of the senses
        • “I think, therefore I am”
        • Separation of mind and matter
        • Rationalism


The Scientific Method

  • The Scientific Method

    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
      • The Great Instauration
      • Inductive Reasoning (empiricism)
      • Practical rather than pure science
    • René Descartes
      • Deductive Reasoning
    • Isaac Newton
      • Synthesized Bacon’s empiricism with Descartes’ rationalism into the scientific method


Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century

  • Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century

    • Example of Galileo
      • Split between Science and Religion
      • New synthesis
    • Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)
      • Excommunicated from Amsterdam Synagogue
      • Panentheism (monism)
        • All that is is in God, and nothing can be apart from God
        • Using reason to find true happiness
    • Blaise Pacal (1623-1662)


The Spread of Scientific Knowledge

  • The Spread of Scientific Knowledge

    • Scientific Societies
      • The Royal Society of England
      • The Royal Academy of France
      • Scientific Journals
        • Journal des Savants
        • Philosophical Transactions
    • Science and Society
      • Acceptance through Practicality
      • Science as a means of economic progress and social stability




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