Caecilius Statius - an Insubrian Gaul from Mediolanum/Milan
Quintus Ennius - Rudiae in Calabria 239
Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder - Tusculum in 234
Publius Terentius Afer - Carthage in mid 180’s, brought to Rome with Terentius Lucanus
Marcus Pacuvius - Brundisium in 220
Lucius Accius - Pesaro/Pisaurum in 170
Lucilius - Suessa Aurunca
Lucius Pomponius - Bologna
Marcus Furius Bibaculus - Cremona
Cinna - Brescia in Cisalpine Gaul
Licinius Calvus - Rome
Gaius Valerius Catullus - Verona 84
Varro Atacinus - Atax
Varro Reatinus - Reate 116
Cornelius Nepos - Ostiglia/Pavia
Gaius Sallustius Crispus - Amiternum in 86
Publius Virgilius Maro - Mantua near Andes in 70
Quintus Horatius Flaccus - Venusia in 65
Gaius Cornelius Gallus - Forum Iulii in Narbonese Gaul
Tibullus - Gabii or Pedum
Sextus Propertius - Assisi in Umbria
Publius Ovidius Naso - Sulmo(na)
Titus Livy - Padua/Patavium 59
Gaius Asinius Pollio - Teate 76
Velleius Paterculus - Aeclanum
Verrius Flaccus - Praeneste
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella: Gades
Pomponius Mela: Tingentera
Lucius Annaeus Seneca E/Y - Cordoba
Marcus Annaeus Lucan - Cordoba
Plutarch - Chaeroneia
Aules Persius Flaccus - Volaterra
Decimus Junius Juvenal - Aquinum
Publius Papinius Statius - Naples
Gaius Plinius Secundus - Como
Marcus Valerius Martialis - Bilbilis
Marcus Fabius Quintilian - Calagurris
Gaius Caecilius Secundus - Como 60
Publius (maybe Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus - Terni 55
Fronto - Cirta
(Lucius) Apuleius - Madaura
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus - Carthage 160
Marcus Minucius Felix - Cirta
Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus - Carthage 200
Nemesianus - Carthage
Arnobius - Sicca Veneris
Ammianus Marcellinus - Antioch
Ausonius - Burdigala
Claudius Claudianus - Alexandria (Egypt)
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens - Calagurris
Meropius Pontis Paulinus - Burdigala
Ambrose - Treviri
Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus - Stridon (in Dalmatia)
Aurelius Augustinus - Thagaste
Tyrannius Rufinus - Aquileia
Sulpicius Severus - Gallia Aquitanica
Martianus Capella - Carthage
Paulus Orosius - Tarragona
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius - Rome 480 CE
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator - Squillace in Calabria
Lovers of Authors Lucilius - Collaera
Propertius - Cynthia: real name Hostia
Lygdamus - Neaera
Sulpicia - Cerinthus
Varro Atax - Leucadia
Tibullus - Book 1: Delia: real name Plania, the boy Marathus is featured, Book 2: Nemesis
Cornelius Gallus - Lycoris: real name is Volumnia, was an actress with the stage name Cytheris
Catullus - Lesbia: real name Clodia, Iuventius
Ovid - Corinna
Apuleius - Pudentilla
Varro Reatinus - Fundania
Licinius Calvus - Quintilia
Statius - Claudia
Symmachus - Rusticiana
Seneca the Younger - Paulina
Paulinus of Nola - Therasia
Authors’ synopses Andronicus Came to Rome from Tarentum in 272 with Livius Salinator. Odusia (designed to be for Salinator’s children, praises Camena, in saturnians) Andronicus wrote 8 tragedies: Achilles, Aegisthus, Ajax Mastigophorus, Equos Troianus, and Harmonia all deal with the Trojan War, other three are Andromeda, Danae, and Tereus. Andronicus has one attested palliata – Gladiolus, other is thought to exist: Ludius. He performed the Patheneion in 207 for Juno. His first performance was in 240. Cicero called his style antiquated and archaic.
Naevius Fought in First Punic War, plebeian by birth, fought with Metelli, died in exile in Utica in 204.
Main work is Bellum Punicum: 7 books, starts with Aeneas' journey to Italy and then discusses First Punic War. Ennius skipped the first Punic War in his Annales as a sign of respect, first work to link Aeneas to founding of Rome.
Wrote two praetextae: Romulus and Clasidium (first fabulae praetextae)
Cothurnatae: Equos Troianus (first work performed at opening of Pompey’s theatre), Danae (both are in Andronicus' corpus also), Hector Proficiscens, Iphigenia, and the non-Trojan War Lycurgus, which was based on the cult of Dionysus.
Palliatae: Colax (from Menander), Gymnasticus, Dolus, Corollia, and Tarentilla, has a fragment about a flirtatious girl in Tarentum.
Caecilius Statius An Insubrian Gaul from Milan, good friend with Ennius, buried near him. Best known is Plocium (based on Menander), Gamos, ex hautou hestos, epicleros, synaristosae, synephebi, epistula, pugil, and oblostates/Faenerator, member of Scipionic Circle, Terence read Andria to Statius
Cincius Alimentus A historian of Plebeian birth, fought in Second Punic War and was taken Prisoner, wrote in Greek.
Ennius Came to Rome with Cato the Elder when both were in Sardinia, died in 169 during the Ludi Apollinares.
Annales: 18 books in dactylic hexameter, Ennius dreams he is Homer, skips 1st Punic war as an ode to Naevius, first time a muse is evoked rather than “camena”
Two praetextae: Sabinae (Rape of Sabines) and Ambracia (his patron's, Fulvius Nobilior, campaigns in Greece) Two Palliatae: Caupuncula (inn-keeper's Wife) and Pancratiastes (The Wrestler) Hedyphagetica (first work in dactylic Hexameter, on Gastronomy, inspired by Archestratus of Gela) Sota (Written in Sotadean verses, which denotes a farcical or crude subject) Scipio (A poem celebrating Africanus' victory at Zama) Wrote 4 books of Satires in various meters. Euhemerus, Epicharmus, and Protrepticus are all philosophical works. Cothurnatae: Alexander, Andromacha, Aechomalotis, Hecuba, Iphigenia, Eumenides, Agamemnon, Phoeporae, Hectoris Lutra, Ajax, and Thyestes (his last, performed in 169). Died during the Ludi Apollinares. Called the Father of Latin Poetry.
Cato the Elder Born in 234, fought in the Second Punic War
Origines (7 books, starts with founding of Rome, ends with praetorship of Sulpicius Galba, gets more detailed when closer to present, first history in Latin), De Agri Cultura (170 short chapters, encourages useless slaves and eating cabbage, oldest work to come down in entirety Carmen De Moribus (a rhythmic work of prose) Apophthegmata (A collection of says and anecdotes, sighted by later authors)
Pacuvius Nephew of Ennius, only almost completely tragedies, also painter, died at Tarentum. Antiope, Armorum Iudicium (contest for arms of Achilles)
Chryses (A competition between Orestes and Pylades to show who was braver in death)
Dulorestes (about Orestes revenge against Clytemnestra and Aegisthus), Hermiona, Iliona (Ilione exchanges Polydorus and Diphilus), Niptra (About Telegonus accidentally killing Odysseus), Teucer (Teucer's exile), Other cothurnatae: Atalanta, Medus, Pentheus, and Periboea, Paullus (praetexta about Paullus' victory at Pydna)
Cicero called Pacuvius the greatest tragedian
Accius Born in 170, criticized by Lucilius, most prolific author of tragedies
Wrote 2 praetextae: Brutus (founding of Republic) and Decius/Aeneadae (about Sentinum)
Cothurnatae: Armorum Iudicium, Astyanax, Atreus (Oderint Dum Metuant), Bacchae, Epinausimache, Hecuba, Medea, Melanippus, myrmidones, Nyctegresia, Philocteta, Phoenissae, Telephus, Tereus, Thebes, Troades
Lucilius Nebulous birthdate, fought at Numantia, died in 102, great uncle of Pompey. First author from aristocracy. Wrote 30 books of Satires: 3rd is his journey to Sicily (Iter Siculum), 21st is to his lover Collaera, 30th is a banquet that inspired the Cena Trimalchionis. Horace called Lucilius his ‘Lantern’, member of Scipionic Circle, he died in Naples.
Cornelius Sisenna Born around 120, aristocratic politician, died in 67.
Wrote the Historiae which dealt with the events between the Social War and Sulla's dictatorship, in it Sulla is a hero.
Volcatius Sedigitus Said to have been born with six fingers. Notable literary critic, famous for rankings of comedians:
Atellan Farce Two main authors are Novius and Lucius Pomponius.
Pomponius is from Bologna and wrote some palliatae and even tragedies
70 titles for Pomponius, 40 for Novius
Mime = Fabula Riciniata
Two main authors are Publilius Syrus and Laberius
Mime was originally only performed at the Ludi Florales
Laberius was a Roman Knight, has 43 titles, pissed of Caesar who forced him to participate in own of his own mimes.
Syrus was from Antioch, younger than Laberius and not of free birth, performed in his own plays
Alexandrists (Cicero called them Neoterics) Valerius Cato: the first definitive neoteric, lived as grammarian, two main works are Lydia and Dictynna/Diana
Marcus Furius Bibaculus: Wrote epigrams, Pragmatia Belli Gallici (historical work), Ethiopid, Furius Alpinus, and Lucubrationes (a witty work in prose)
Varro Atax: Wrote Bellum Sequanicum (work on Caesar’s victory over Ariovistus), Leucadia (a poem to his lover), Chorographica (a geographical work), Ephemeris (a poem on weather), and Argonautae (rewriting of Apollonius' work in hexameters).
Cinna: Friend of Catullus, went on expedition to Bithynia with Catullus, wrote some epigrams, Propempticon (about someone start a journey, dedicated to Asinius Pollio) main work is Zmyrna (details incest of Myrrha and Cinyras, praised in Catullus 95), killed when he was mistaken for a conspirator of Caesar
Licinius Calvus: Friend of Catullus, son of historian Licinius Macer, famous for his orations against Vatinius, short poems (many addressing the death of his wife Quintilia), and an Epyllion entitled Io.
Catullus: Born in 84, Caesar was a guest in his house, wrote about Lesbia, went with Memmius to bithynia where he visited his brothers tomb. Wrote 116 poems, first 60 are titled “nugae” (49 mentions Cicero, 50 is modelled on Sappho), 61-68 “carmina docta” (61-62 are “epithalamia”, 61 is about the marriage of Torquatus and Aurunculeia, 63 about Cybele and Atis and written in Galiambic verse, 64 is an epyllion about Peleus and Thetis, but spends most of the time with ekphrasis depicting Ariadne and Theseus, in hexameters) and 69-116, which are primarily written in elegiac couplet as opposed to his usual hendecasyllabic.
Cicero exordium - start of the speech
refutatio - rebuttal
peroratio - end of the speech
Speeches Pro Quinctio (81, first speech, Hortensius is prosecutor), Pro Roscio Amerino (80, first extant, defends the actor Roscius by attacking Sulla’s freedman Chrysogonus) Pro Tullio (77), In Verrem (70,). Pro Fonteio (69, not fully extant, defends a governor of Gaul from a charge of extortion), Pro Caecina (69-68 required him to display an intricate knowledge of inheritance in correlation with farmland), Pro Cluentio (66, defends a poisoning charge, an example of a forensics case), Pro Lege Manilia (66, delivered in the year of his praetorship, is an exhortation to the senate for them to approve the legislation giving Pompey command against Mithridates VI), De Lege Agraria (63), Pro Murena (63, delivered between first and second Catilinarians, defends a consul suffectus from a charge of electoral bribery), Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo (63, defends an aged knight from a charge that the man had killed Saturninus in 100 BC) In Catilinam (63, 4 speeches first is given on November 8th, in from of Jupiter Stator), Pro Sulla (62), Pro Archia Poeta (62, defends the citizenship status of an old teacher, evolves into a defense of art), Pro Flacco (59, defend a man against extortion, who as praetor in 63 BC, had helped carry out the execution of Catilinarian conspirators, Jews are attacked), Pro Sestio (56, evolves his theory of Concordia Ordinum into the Consensus Omnium bonorum, all the while defending Sestius from Clodius’ accusation of violence), In Vatinium (56), Pro Caelio (56, defends a personal friend from a poisoning charge, does so by attacking Caelius’ lover Clodia viciously, implying incest between her and Clodius), De Provinciis Consularibus (56, announcing support for the negotiations at Luca), Pro Balbo (56, defends ), In Pisonem (55), Pro Planco (54), Pro Scauro (54), Pro Milone (52, became so flustered that he was unable to perform the speech, only case he lost), Pro Marcello (46), Pro Ligario (46), Philippics (44-43)
Rhetorical Works First is De Inventione, begun in youth, espouses eloquence and sapienta (philosophical knowledge) De Oratore (3 book dialogue written in 55 BC between Marcus Antonius and Lucius Crassus, set in 91 BC),
Brutus (46 BC, dialogue on the history of Oratory, offers both praise and criticism for the differing styles of Arianism and Atticism, between Cicero, Brutus, and Atticus)
Political Works De Re Publica (6 book work, political dialogue, in the first 3 book analyzes the degeneration of the various forms of state, the development of the constitution, and a defense against Roman imperialism, books 4 and 5 are not extant but introduces the character Princeps, 6th book is famous Somnium Scipionis: Aemilianus has a dream in which Africanus shows the insignificance of human possession) De Legibus (likely not published during the author's lifetime, features Cicero, brother Quintus, and Atticus, missing large portions of books 4 and 5, and acts as an extension of his famous dialogue De Re Publica)
Philosophical Treatises (46-43)
Paradoxes of the Stoics (First philosophical work, dedicated to Brutus, written in 46) Academica (divided into 2 sections, the Priora and Posteriora) De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum (5 books, 3 dialogues, discussing the greatest virtues and vices, first two books refute Epicureanism, books 3 and 4 praise Cato the Younger’s stoicism, 5th espouses his own ideas) Tusculan Disputations (written in 45, 5 books, dedicated to Brutus, takes place in Cicero’s Villa, a dialogue between Cicero and an anonymous man, in which they discuss topics, such as death, grief, and sadness. Cicero argues virtue is the key to happiness) De Natura Deorum (3 book work refuting Epicureanism) Cato Maior De Senectute (44, dedicated to Atticus, , Laelius De Amicitia, De Officiis (44 BC, dedicated to his son, 3 books, first discusses honorable duties, second discusses pragmatic duties, third discusses the conflict between them), Consolatio (written after his daughter died, lost)
Poetic Works De Consolatu Suo (about his consulship, derided by critics, “O Fortunatam natam me consule Romam”) Marius, Aratea (best received work, translation of Aratus’ Phaenomena)
Caesar Commentarii De Bello Gallico (Hirtius wrote 8th, designed to sway Senate), Commentarii De Bello Civili (3 books), Oedipus (tragedy, lost), De Analogia (54 BC, 2 books, on grammar and diction, dedicated to Cicero), Laudes Herculis (poem), Anticatones (2 books, refutes Cicero’s praise of Cato in Laus Catonis) Iter (poem on campaigns in Spain), wrote an epigram on Terence, called him a lover of pure diction, Bellum Alexandrinum, Bellum Africum, Bellum Hispaniense (all spurious, Alexandrinum by Hirtius)
Varro Reatinus Born in 116, pupil of Aelius Stilo, fought with Pompey against Sertorius and was with Pompey after the lex Gabinia was passed, Caesar has him build a library in 46, he was proscribed by Antony but was saved, died in 27.
De Lingua Latina (25 books, 5-10 are extant, dedicated to Cicero), De Re Rustica/Rerum Rusticarm Libri Tres (3 books) 150 books of Menippean satires, Antiquitates (25 books, on history, geography), De Poetis (a literary chronology in 3 books), Logistorici (6 books, dialogues on philosophy and history), set Rome’s foundation at 753 BC, claimed that if Muses spoke Latin they would speak like Plautus
Nigidius Figulus Regarded as a magician by his contemporaries, Lucan depicts him as uttering prophecies at the start of Bellum Civile. Nigidius means potter.
Works are Despaera Graecania, de vento, de terris, de somniis, de extis, de diis, and his most famous work, Commentarii Grammatici (29 books)
Cornelius Nepos First biographer, Atticus was his patron
Exempla (5 books, on geography), De Excellentibus Ducibus Exterarum Gentium (on foreign military leaders), Chronica (3 book history of the world), De Viris Illustribus (16 books of biographies, first biographer).
Sallust Was a novus homo, populare, kicked out of senate in 50 for “moral turpitude”, Caesar gave him first governorship of Africa Nova in 46.
Historiae (unfinished, 5 books, covered 78-67 BCE), Bellum Catilinae (first work, monograph, used De Consulatu Suo as a source), Bellum Iugurthinum, Empedoclea (spurious, cited by Cicero). Developed the style of Inconncinitas, which set the precedent for historical works.
Vergil Born in 70, schooled in Naples, died at Brundisium in 19.
Bucolics/Eclogues (10 books, hexameters, based on Theocritus' Idylls, characters include Tityrus, Meliboeus, Corydon, Daphnis, Menalcus, Mopsus, Damon, books 4 and 8 are dedicated Asinius Pollio, 6th and 10th to Gallus) Appendix Vergiliana (Dirae/Lydia, Catalepton, Culex, Ciris, Copa, Moretum, Priapea, Aetna) Georgics (4 books, hexameters, based on Hesiod's Works and Days, 4th was originally about Gallus but was changed to Aristaeus). Propertius declared, “Nescio quid maius nascitor Iliade?” about the Aeneid.
Horace Father was an auctioneer, Horace fought as a military tribune under Brutus/Cassius at Philippi, his farm at Venusia is confiscated. Became employed as a scribe, came into Maecenas’ circle in 33 BC, who gave him a farm in Sabine Country. Died the same year as Maecenas.
Epodes (first work, written 41-30 BC, 17 poems, author called it ‘Iambi’), Sermones (3 books total, first book is 10 poems, Satire 1.5 is journey to Brundisium, Satire 1.9 is satire about bore “accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum - A certain man ran up to me notable to me by name only”), Odes (initially 3 books of 88 poems, published in 23 BC, 1.11 “Carpe Diem”, 1.37 on Cleopatra’s suicide. Augustus commissions Horace to write 4th book in 13 BC, inspired by Pindar” Carmen Saeculare (17 BC, in Sapphic Strophe, for the Ludi Saeculare, sung by a chorus of 27 boys and 27 girls), Epistulae (2 books + Ars Poetica, dedicated to Maecenas)
Wrote a propempticon to Vergil, “animae dimidium”
Elegiac Poets Gallus: First prefect of Egypt, was exiled and committed suicide in 26 BCE, good friends with Vergil. Amores (4 books of elegies to Lycoris (real name was Volumnia, stage name was Cytheris), ten verses found in 1979, Volumnia is said to have slept with Mark Antony
Tibullus: Under patronage of Messala Corvinus (went on military campaigns with him), became sick on a campaign and died shortly after in Italy. Corpus Tibullianum (3 books, 1st book has poems to Delia and the boy Marathus, 2nd book to Nemesis, 3rd book first 6 are by Lygdamus to Neaera, then Tibullus' Panegyric to Corvinus, last 13 are by Sulpicia to Cerinthus), Tibullus often wrote about the virtues of a rustic life “a poet of the fields” Quintilian referred to him as tersus atque elegans.
Propertius: Born in the early 40's BCE, family lost their land after Perusine War, under patronage of Maecenas but was nevertheless very good friends with Ovid. Elegies (4 books, first is called Monobiblos, Cynthia is heavily featured, real name Hostia, 3rd book has an epicedium to Marcellus) Propertius called himself the Roman Callimachus
Ovid Born on March 20th 43 BCE, originally going to be a lawyer and politician, under patronage of Corvinus, daughter was named Perilla exiled to Tomi in 8, died in 17.
Amores (5 books, claims Cupid stole a dactyl in the opening lines, elegiac couplet, to Corinna), Heroides (21 letters total, 15 are one way, 15-21 are exchanges between Hero and Leander, Paris and Helen, Acontius and Cydippe, elegiac couplet), Medea (lost tragedy, very successful), Ars amatoria (3 books, first 2 for men, 3 for women, elegiac couplet “vel tibi composita cantetur Epistola voce: ignotum hoc aliis ille novavit opus”, discussing Heroides), Remedia Amoris (elegiac couplet), Medicamina Faciei Femineae (applying makeup, elegiac couplet), Metamorphoses (15 books, hexameter), Fasti (6 books finished, explores ancient customs of Latium, poetic calendar in elegiac couplet, dedicated to Germanicus), Tristia (5 books, in exile, defends himself, first composed on the boat ride to Tomi), Epistulae Ex Ponto (4 books, 46 elegies), Ibis (invectives against his enemies, inspired by Callimachus), Halieutica (written in hexameters, didactic on fishing) Nux (spurious, about a nut tree)
Titus Livy Born in 59 BC, fostered Claudius’ love of history, died in 17 AD, same year as Ovid. Spent over forty years writing Ab Urbe Condita, mid thirties to seventies.
Ab Urbe Condita is 142 books, 35 extent (1-10, 21-45), ends with the death of Drusus the Elder in 9 BC Asinius Pollio accused him of Patavinitas, or provincialism. Augustus called Livy a “Pompeian” for his romantic depiction of the Republic. Quintilian described Livy’s style as Lactea Ubertas. Through Seneca the Elder, we have a fragment that details Cicero’s death. Short summaries of his books: Periochae. Periochae for 136 and 137 are missing.
Golden Age Minor Historians Asinius Pollio: Born in 76 BCE, writes a Historiae (60 - 42 BCE), built first Public Library
Pompeius Trogus: Wrote a 44 book work titled Philippicae Historiae, which covers Mediterranean History from Babylon, used a lot of information from Timagenes
Augustus wrote the a work titled Commentarii de vita sua
Velleius Paterculus: was a cavalry commander under Tiberius, wrote a two book work entitled Historiae
Valerius Maximus: Factorum et dictorum Memorabilium (9 books, heavily lauded Tiberius, also wrote the Exempla (historiography, included many other things designed to teach)
Curtius Rufus: wrote the Historiae Alexandri Magni (history of Alexander the Great, 10 books, first two are lost)
Misc Golden age authors Verrius Flaccus: The greatest grammarian of his age, tutored Augustus’ grandsons. Fasti (inspired Ovid’s), Rerum Etruscarum Libri, De verborum significatu (glossary of obscure words)
Vitruvius Pollio: an engineer under Caesar who constructed war machines. De Architectura (10 books, dedicated to Augustus, 3rd book features Vitruvian Man sketch)
Cornelius Celsus: Wrote a massive work under Tiberius’ reign encompassing agriculture, medicine, military art, oratory, philosophy, philosophy, and jurisprudence. Only medicine (books 6-13) survives. Quintilian heavily praises Celsus as an elegant writer.
Moderatus Columella: Wrote his treatise on agriculture in two editions. (First edition only has the chapter De Arboribus remaining, the 12 books of the second edition remain intact, 10th chapter is De Cultu Hortorum is in hexameters and pays homage to the Georgics)
Pomponius Mela: Known as a “pure” geographer, wrote during Claudius’ reign, Chorographica (3 books, opens with a complaint that geography can’t be eloquent, style is based on Sallust’s)
Manilius: wrote a work on Astrology, 5 books are extent.
Seneca the Younger Born in 4 BC, had an affair with Caligula’s sister Julia Livilla and Claudius exiled him to Corsica. He is brought back to tutor Nero. Quintilian accused him of causing degenerate Latin at the time.
Wrote twelve books of Dialogi (treatises: De Ira, De Vita Beata, De Brevitate Vitae, De Providentia), De Beneficiis ( ), De Clementia (addressed to Nero, 3 books), Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium (20 books of 124 letters to his friend Lucilius, used as evidence to support theory that Seneca was a Christian) Naturales Quaestiones (7 books, scientific work, dedicated to Lucilius), wrote 9 cothurnatae (Medea, Phoenissae, Hercules Oetaeus) Apocolocyntosis (Menippean Satire on “pumpkinification” of Claudius). His wife tried to commit suicide after he did, Nero prevented her.
Priapea: 80 poems with thematic links to the Satyricon, 68th is a “reimagining” of the Odyssey
Pliny the Elder Pliny retired from public life during Nero’s reign.
Minor works include: De Iaculatione Equestri (about fighting on horseback), Bella Germaniae (major influence of Tacitus’ Germania), De Vita Pomponii Secundi (a biography about his friend Pomponius Secundus), Naturalis Historia (37 books, only extant work, claims to have included all known information, and that nothing was hidden, dedicated to Titus)
Lucan Born in 39 CE, nephew of Seneca the Younger, taught by Cornutus. Iliacon (lost epic on the Trojan War), Catachthonion (lost epyllion about the descent to the underworld, perhaps on Orpheus), Silvae (lost ten books of poems), Medea (lost and unfinished), Bellum Civile (10 books, 10th is unfinished, no gods featured, known as Anti-Aeneid), Nero forbid Lucan from reciting his poetry in public, said to have recited his poetry as he died.
Persius Lost his father at age 6, studied in Rome and was influenced by Cornutus (Stoic philosopher), wrote 6 books of Satires in dactylic hexameter (5th is dedicated to Cornutus)
Juvenal Taught by Quintilian, began writing after Domitian’s reign, was good friends with Martial. Wrote 5 books of 16 satires in hexameters, author called them Farragones” (6th attacks women in it Messalina is cited as an example of women’s evilness contains the famous phrase “qui custodiet ipsos custodes”, 12th on legacy hunters, 13th on cheats/swindlers, 15th discusses an account of cannibalism, 16th on the military) Panem et Circenses - 10th Satire, Martial called Juvenal “Facundus”.
Statius Son of a schoolmaster, wrote and died during the reign of Domitian. De Bello Germanico (lost work on Domitian’s deeds), Agave (lost pantomime), Achilleid (lost work, only first book is extent), Thebaid (12 books epic), and Silvae (5 books, 32 poems to his sons, praised Domitian in them)
Martial Came to Rome with help of Seneca family, owned a farm at Nomentum, left Rome and died in Bilbilis. Liber Spectaculorum (first book of epigrams , opening of the Coliseum in 80) Composed 12 books of epigrams, two other books: Xenia (13th book, about giving gifts at Saturnalia), Apophoreta (giving gifts as a banquet)
Quintilian Brought to Rome by Vespasian as first professor, tutored Domitian’s nephews, taught Juvenal. Only extant work is 12 book Institutio Oratoria.
Frontinus Legate in Britain, was the Curator Aquarum under Nerva. Strategemata (4 books, anecdotes about his campaigns, designed to be a practical tool for soldier’s, but too generic and imprecise). Best work is De Aquis Urbis Romae (about aqueducts and the methods of Rome’s accumulation of war)
Tacitus Born around 55 CE, worked in gov’t during Flavians, gave the eulogy for Verginius Rufus in 97 CE, corresponded often with Pliny the Younger, governor of Asia under Hadrian. First two works are published in 98, De Vita Iulii Agricola (biography on his Father-in-law, praises the British and attacks Roman hypocrisy) and Germania (ethnographic treatise praised Germans, used by Hitler for nationalistic purposes) Dialogus de Oratoribus (a little after 100 BCE, discusses oratory as a dying art), Annales and historiae (30 total books books, Augustus' death through Domitian's reign, Historiae is published first but is about later events, Galba through Domitian)
Acta Martyrum Scilliatanorum is the first Christian work in Latin.
Pliny the Younger Nephew of Pliny the Elder, wrote letter to Tacitus detailing eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, made governor of Bithynia by Trajan. Panegyricus praised the emperor Trajan, contrasted Domitian with Trajan), wrote ten books of Epistulae, tenth is between Pliny and Trajan, famous for discussion of Christians).
Suetonius Father fought at Cremona. Trajan placed him in charge of public libraries, Hadrian placed him in charge of Imperial archives. Septicius Clarus was his patron.
De Viris Illustribus (collection of biographies divided into various genres, only extent is De Grammaticis et Rhetoribus) De Vita Caesarum (8 books, 12 biographies on the emperors between Caesar and Domitian, dedicated to Septicius Clarus, missing introductory chapter to the first biography,
Aulus Gellius Noctes Atticae (20 books, notes and miscellany collected during a winter in Attica, intended for his sons to read, 8th book is missing, 5th has famous Androcles and the lion)
(Lucius) Apuleius Born around 125 to wealthy parents, schooled in Carthage, married the widowed mother of his friend Pontianus, Pudentilla, tried for practice of magic in 158 after her death. Wrote Phaedo, Republic (translations of Plato), Hermagoras (another novel), Anechomenos (a translation of a Menander play), Peri hermeneias (treatise of Aristotelian Logic), De Mundo (philosophical treatise, reworks Aristotle’s Peri Kosmou, inspired from Noctes Atticae), De Deo Socratis (philosophical treatise), De Platone et Eius Dogmate (2 book philosophical treatise), Florida/Anthera (23 speeches Apuleius made) De Magica/Apologia (defense against witchcraft, many author’s lover’s true names are learned, Apuleius’ auto-biographical information), Asinus Aureus (11 books, Lucius is main character, transformed into donkey by Fotius, kidnapped by slavers, meets a girl named Charite, Cupid and Psyche is told in spurts books 4-6, Lucius is turned into human after eating a rose from the cult of Isis).
Tertullian Born in 160 to pagan parents, father was a centurion, was a very strict Christian eventually adopting Montanism. Ad Martyras (exhortation to Christians imprisoned awaiting martyrdom), De Anima (written in 211, reimagines early Pagan works), De Spectaculis (takes a stance against spectator sports), De Cultu Feminarum (about clothing of Women), De Pudicitia (against sex outside of marriage), Apologeticum (defends Christians from persecution)
Minucius Felix Contemporary of Tertullian. Wrote a lost work titled De Fato, Octavius (a dialogue between Caecilius and Octavius, Octavius reproaches Caecilius for blowing a kiss to a statue of Serapis and with Felix moderating convinces Caecilius of Christian Virtue)
Cyprian Born in 200, taught rhetoric until he converted in 246, protected Christians from Decius but was killed while doing the same thing during Valerian’s reign and died a martyr on September 14th 258. Ad Demetrianum (discusses attacks by Pagans and divine punishment), De Habitu Virginum (female conduct for those who have converted to Christianity), De Lapsis (about the attitudes of those who denied their faith during persecution), Ad Donatum (discussion of his own conversion, precursor to Confessions)
Novatian Serious argument with Cyprian over treatment of Lapsi (lapsed Christians who wanted to come back into the church, Novatian was against it). De Trinitate (first work of that title, discussed the nature and value of the Trinity).
Commodian The first Christian Poet. Instructiones (2 books of 80 poems, first is an attack on pagans and Jews, second is for Christians), Carmen Apologeticum (epic in
hexameters, about the history of the Old Testament)
Anthologia Latina: A massive collection of poems from Africa, most famous sequence is the Pervigilium Veneris which depicts a festival for Venus on Sicily. “Cras amet qui numquam amavit, quique amavit cras amet”.
Nemesianus Dedicated his main works to Carinus and Numerian, wrote 4 eclogues based on Vergil, Cynegetica (a didactic work on Hunting)
Censorinus Wrote the De Die Natali (dedicated to Cerellius, two parts, first is on the relationship between men and dies natalis, and the second discusses the calendar and time passing)
Aelius Donatus Wrote two grammatical treatise, Ars minor and Ars Maior, and the Vita Vergilii (discusses the life of Vergil) and well as a a similar work on Terence, tutored Jerome
Tiberius Claudius Donatus wrote a twelve book work, with each book dissecting the Aeneid’s respective book
Servius wrote commentaries on Vergil
Macrobius Born in Africa, wrote a commentary on the Somnium Scipionis dedicated to his son Eustathius. Wrote a commentary on the Somnium Scipionis. Main work is Saturnalia (7 books, features many other authors including Servius, first 2 books are the first day of Saturnalia and discusses religious matters, but Christianity is not mentioned; the last two days and 5 books are about Vergil)
Symmachus/Eusebius Nicknamed Eusebius, son of a notable senator, married to Rusticiana. 8 speeches are preserved, 3 are panegyrics to Valentinian and Gratian, other 5 delivered in Senate, Epistulae (ten books), Relationes (fifty letters to various emperor, the third is a plea to Valentinian II to restore the Altar of Victory to the senate house, Ambrose thwarted this.)
Arnobius Was a schoolteacher, converted to Christianity later in life. Adversus Nationes (7 books, expound christian doctrine, discuss polytheistic doctrine, and then refutes it).
Lactantius Born in Africa, taught by Arnobius, hired as tutor of Crispus, advisor to Constantine. Symposium (lost), Hodoeporicum (lost, describes a voyage from Africa to Bithynia, also a grammatical treatise), De Opificio (about harmony of Nature and immortality of soul), Divinae Institutiones (7 books, dedicated to Constantine, attacks paganism, discusses philosophy, propounds Christian Doctrine), De Ira Dei (discusses the need for an angry God), known as Christian Cicero
Victorinus Of African origin, born around 300, was a rhetorician who had a statute placed in the forum in his honor, he converted shortly after, retired from teaching during Julian’s reign. While he was a teacher he wrote Art Grammatica, commentaries on Cicero’s De Inventione, and De Definitionibus. Once he converted, he wrote Ad Candidum Arianum, which is a multifaceted work.
Eutropius Italian man who fought under Julian, appointed Magister Memoriae by Valens. At the request of Valens he wrote the ten book Breviarium ab Urbe Condita in 364.
Ammianus Marcellinus Had a long military career beginning with Constantine, ending with campaigns with Julian. Rerum Gestarum Libri XXXI (31 book history from Nerva through Valens, continuation of Tacitus, the work places much more detail/emphasis on Julian).
Historia Augusta: Covers from Nerva through Carus/Carinus/Numerian, Nerva/Trajan are missing (extent portion starts at Hadrian). Was known as the Vita Diversorum Principum et Tyrannorum. The six authors are: Lampridius, Spartianus, Vopiscus, Capitolinus, Trebellius Pollio, and Gallicanus.
Ausonius Studied then became professor in his hometown of Burdigala. Was summoned to court to teach Gratian retired from public life after Gratian’s death. Wrote three Praefatiunculae in elegiac couplet. His major work is the Opuscula (an umbrella work for many works, mostly poetic.The most famous are the Parentalia, a poem for his own death, the Bissula, which is to a cultured German slave girl, and Mosella which is an epyllion to the namesake river).
Claudian Came into the court of Honorius and became friends with Stilicho. A statue was built for him in 400. He remained a pagan, though he did not fiercely defend or promulgate it. He wrote poems praising Honorius, poems praising Stilicho, invectives against Stilicho’s enemies, and epics on mythological subjects. The most notable are the Gigantomachy (two fragments survive) and De Raptu Proserpinae. “Last great Roman poet.”
Prudentius He was a lawyer and governmental administrator. He wrote hymnals (Cathemerinon, twelve hymns designed to be sung at special occasions and through the day; Peristephanon fourteen hymns for Christian martyrs). Contra Symmachum (a two book hexameter work arguing for the extrication of the Altar of Victory from the senate house). Hamartigenia (a hexameter work on the origin of sin), Psychomachia (hexameter work that is personifies the struggles between the virtues and vice internally).
Paulinus of Nola Pupil of Ausonius, governor of Campania, married to wealthy Spanish lady, Therasia, gave up politics for her. As a priest as Nola he oversaw a “monumental architectural complex”. Wrote fifty epistulae (to Jerome, Augustine, Ausonius, Rufinus, Sulpicius Severus), thirty Carmina, and a panegyric to Theodosius. Spurious: De Obitu Baebiani.
Querolus sive Aulularia Only extant comedy from the empire. The unknown author declared that the work is to be read “fabellis atque mensis” which means at places aside from the theatre.
St. Ambrose Born from powerful, Christian family, Bishop Milan, had a lot of influence. Hexameron (six books with 9 speeches in it), wrote a lot of works on virginity, De Paenitentia (on sin and grace), most notables work are De Officiis Ministrorum (3 books, lists the duties of priests and precepts for living a Christian life) and De Nabuthae (discusses property and the relationship between rich and poor).
St. Jerome Was taught in Rome by Victorinus and Aelius Donatus, Rufinus was a fellow student and later ideological enemy. Major works are the Chronicon (a translation and expansion of Eusebius’ work, a universal history of the world), De Viris Illustribus (a 135 biographies from St. Peter to himself). His translation of the Bible (Vulgata) has shaped western literature since its publication.
St. Augustine Before Christianity he dabbled in Neoplatonism and Manichaeism. Mother was Monica. Had an existential crisis when he read Cicero’s Hortensius causing him to convert to Manichaeism. Symmachus got Augustine a chair at rhetoric, converted to Christianity when he listened to sermons from Ambrose. Became the bishop of Hippo, died while the Vandals were besieging the town.
According to Possidius Augustine wrote over 1,000 works. Confessiones (13 books, 1-9 narrate his life and the others acts as a philosophical examination of his life, first autobiography) De CivitateDei (22 books, argues that histories must become about humanity rather than nations, “magnum opus et arduum”)
Martianus Capella A lawyer of non-christian beliefs, De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae (an encyclopedia on classical learning in 9 books, much used and well regarded)
Orosius A Spanish priest who fled during the invasion of the Vandals, encountered Jerome and Augustine after emigrating to Africa. Commonitorium de Errore Priscillianistrarum et Origenistarum (first work, dedicated to Augustine, discusses heresies in Spain), Liber Apologeticus (a work denouncing Pelagian heresy), Historiae adversus Paganos (main work, 7 books, Augustine requested it to be used some in De Civitate Dei, discusses the history of mankind in the first 6 books, 7th is look at Imperial Rome through 417)
Boethius Studied philosophy in the east, member of Roman nobility, consul in 510, Magister Officium in 522,, accused of conspiring against Theodoric and jailed then put to death in 524. Translated works of Aristotle and commentaries on Cicero, wrote two works on syllogism (De differentiis Topiciis and De Divisione) De Consolatione Philosophiae (menippean satire and dialogue, between prisoner and manifestation of Philosophy, in it Philosophy is there to console the prisoner, one of the most famous works of the Middle ages, and considered the last great work of Classical antiquity)
Synopses of Plautus Amphitruo - Plautus’ only mythological play, details Jupiter’s seduction of Alcmena with the help of Mercury and Amphitryon’s dealing with the subsequent events
Asinaria - A man, with the help of a slave and his father (unusual) is able to ransom a beautiful girl however a rivalry between the man and his father arises, settles in favor of the man.
Aulularia - A miser named Euclio’s pot of gold is stolen by a young man named Lycomides to win a girl, who turns out to be Euclio’s daughter, Phaedria.
Bacchides - About two courtesans who are pursued by two men, the plot is based on Dis Exapaton by Menander
Captivi - Philocrates has lost two sons, one was lost the other, Philepolemus, was taken prisoner. He buys two Elean slaves to gain back his son but one of slaves turns out to be his lost sons and he gets back Philepolemus with the other. Considered a more serious comedy and notably has no women in the play. Naevius’ imprisonment is referenced in the play.
Casina - An old man and his son both compete to gain the affection of a girl, the son wins.
Cistellaria - Alcesimarchus wants to marry Selenium, a girl of illegitimate birth, his father doesn’t, but it works out that the man can marry her. Cistellaria means “The Casket”.
Curculio - Plautus’ shortest play. Curculio means weevil. Curculio loves a women and in order to win her he tricks a pimp and a soldier named Terapontigonus. Curculio is able to win her over when she turned out to be of free birth and the sister of Terapontigonus.
Epidicus - The “classic slave’s comedy” Epidicus’ master falls in love with two girls, however one turns out to be his sister, leaving the choice simple.
Menaechmi - prototypical “Comedy of errors” two brothers named Menaechmus are not aware of the others existence and when both are in the same city chaos ensues, eventually they discover each other’s existence.
Mercator - An old man and his son, a merchant, both compete to gain the affection of a girl, the son wins.
Miles Gloriosus - The longest play by Plautus. The slave Palaestrio wins a girl for his master over the boastful soldier Pyrgopolynices.
Mostellaria - The slave Tranio attempts to hide his master’s (Theopropides) affair with a girl, eventually his ruse is discovered but all is forgiven.
Persa - A slave himself is in love with a girl and he tricks a pimp by impersonating a Persian.
Poenulus - The title character is from Carthage, he witnesses a series of events that end up with lover’s reuniting and a pimp being deceived.
Pseudolus - The title character, a slave, tricks a pimp named Ballio into giving away a girl, Phoenicium, away that his master fancies. Shortest prologue
Rudens - Has an usual prologue of the star Arcturus foretelling a shipwreck of the pimp Labrax.
Stichus - Has little drama, A man has two daughters and their husbands are away, he wants them to divorce their husbands, but the Husbands return.
Trinummus - A spendthrift, Lesbonicus, nearly goes bankrupt but is saved by a friend of his father through a swindle.
Truculentus - The Courtesan, named Phronesium, is an active role in this play. She is treated worse than the usual villain, perhaps saying people outside of their roles are villains.
Vidularia - “the-chest”, A man loses all forms of identity in a shipwreck.
Terence Suspected that Laelius or Scipio Aemilianus wrote Terence’s plays. Died in 159 on voyage to Greece. Caesar: “Puri Sermonis Amator”, lover of pure diction. Worked with the actor/producer Ambivius Turpio, all works are based in Greece.
Andria - 166 BC, first work, first performed at the funeral games of Aemilius Paullus, preface defends use of Contaminatio.
Hecyra (Mother-in-Law) - combination of Menander and Apollodorus, failed the first two times to tight rope walkers and gladiatorial game, succeeded when performed with Adelphoi, shortest play.
Adelphoi (Brothers) -
Heautontimorumenos (Self-Punisher) - “Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto”
Eunuchus - Longest play, most financially successful, very Plautine in style,
Phormio - taken from Apollodorus’ Epidikazomenos,