This study focuses on the conservation treatment of a clock case and the
painted dial (Figure 1). The subject clock for this article resides in the col-
lection of the Saco Museum in Saco, ME, and was gifted to the museum by
Charles Dodge in 2004. It bears the signature of Saco clockmaker Edward
S. Moulton, who is responsible for the clockworks. The case is attributed to
Abraham Forsskol, a Swedish immigrant who was a partner in the Saco cabi-
netmaking ﬁ rm of Cumston and Buckminster. Both men, Moulton and Forss-
kol, arrived in Saco in 1814 and apparently forged a good working relation-
ship, because several clocks are attributed to them. The Saco Museum owns
three clocks attributed to Moulton and Forsskol; this clock is the largest of the
While the clock was in private ownership it was a treasured object and
the family carried it with them as they moved around the country. Starting
in Saco, the clock was moved at least seven times through six states, and as
far away as Florida. With the donation of the clock to the museum it returned
home to where its life began nearly 200 years ago.
In 2009 the Saco Museum
preparation for exhibition. Until that time the clock was kept in storage at the
museum. This article describes the conservation treatment of the clock and
the decision-making rationale for developing a treatment plan.
The clock and case are excellent examples of workmanship and collabora-
tion between Moulton and Forsskol. The case is made of solid mahogany, ma-
hogany veneers, pine backboard, and as yet unidentiﬁ ed secondary woods,
possibly birch or maple.
The turned feet lend an exceptionally vertical feel to
A Tallcase Clock, Saco, Maine, 1814-1820, by
Edward Moulton and Abraham Forsskol
By Jon Brandon (ME)
This report was originally presented at the 2010 Ward Francillon Time
Symposium on conservation, restoration, and repair, held October 28–30 in
1. The subject clock is the largest of three Moulton/Forsskol clocks in the collec-
tion at the Saco Museum and is larger than other known Moulton/Forsskol clocks
surveyed outside the Saco Museum collection.
2. Thank you to Jessica Skwire Routhier, director of the Saco Museum, for sharing
information about the clock from the museum ﬁ les. Thank you to Tom Hardiman for
information about the working histories of Moulton and Forsskol.
3. Wood identiﬁ cations are by visual inspection.
Figure 1, right. Clock after treatment. Moulton/Forsskol clock, property of Saco
Museum, Saco, ME. Gift of Charles Dodge, 2004, accession number 2004.17.1.
© 2012 National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, Inc. Reproduction prohibited without written permission.
• July/August 2012 • NAWCC Watch & Clock Bulletin
hogany ﬂ anked by reeded quar-
ter columns with brass capitals.
The arched bonnet is particu-
larly attractive, with a matching
arched door ﬂ anked by reeded
columns surmounted by a deep
cove molding and three reeded
pillars with delicate pierced fret-
work. The painted dial is equally
attractive, with gilded spandrels
with ﬂ owers and leaves around
a white dial offset with gold
striping and a calendar window.
Above the dial is a mechanical
rocking ship, powered by the
pendulum, which sails to-and-
fro across a choppy sea in an ex-
Condition of the clock
We are fortunate to have his-
torical notes written by Charles
Dodge concerning the history of
the clock and its care.
notes gives a glimpse into the
life of the clock and an under-
standing of how its condition
was compromised. “This Edward
S. Moulton Clock left Saco via a
sailing vessel with Olive Fairﬁ eld
and Albert Dodge when they
removed to Apalachicola, FL, in
the mid-nineteenth century. Lat-
er the clock was moved with the
family to Georgia and Virginia.
One of their homes was low
of ceiling and the feet were re-
moved from the clock, fretwork
on the bonnet and the brass ﬁ ni-
als cut to shorter length. Among
other locations where the clock
has served have been Flushing,
NY, in the 1930s when the cat
gut, suspending the weights was
replaced with mesh wire. The
clock has also seen service in
Douglaston, NY, Hartford, CT,
and Sherman, CT.”
tumble life and was missing several decora-
tive wood and metal elements (Figure 2).
The ﬁ nish was dark and nearly opaque with
splotchy areas (Figure 3). The bonnet door
glass was broken with a single crack run-
ning from left to right in the arch (Figure
4). The painted dial had ﬂ aking paint and
was covered with a grime layer that muted
the colors. Lost elements included the brass
ﬁ nials, a lock for the waist door, fretwork
and the center pillar on the bonnet, mold-
ing on the bottom edge of the sides, and
Moulton/Forsskol clock, property
of Saco Museum, Saco, ME. Gift of
Charles Dodge, 2004, accession number
Figure 3. Bottom panel of the clock case
before treatment showing the darkened and
splotchy appearance of the existing ﬁ nish.
Figure 4. Bonnet door showing cracked
are in the object ﬁ le at the Saco
Museum, Saco, ME.
5. Dodge notes.
Developing a treatment plan means it is decision-mak-
ing time. Choices must be made about what actions are to
be taken that will change the object for better or for worse;
hopefully, the former. And don’t kid yourself about treat-
ments; no matter how carefully they are done, a change
will have occurred, and the object will be different from
what it was before its treatment. A well-thought-out treat-
ment plan is imperative to protect the object from unin-
tended harm. The factors that inﬂ uence a treatment plan
are many and some of these factors could be in opposi-
tion to each other. One possible set of factors could be the
needs of an object versus the needs of the user. For exam-
ple, consider an object that is historically signiﬁ cant (e.g.,
George Washington’s chair) but is so fragile that sitting in
it would irreversibly damage the chair, compared to the
needs of the owner of that object who desires to use the
chair. The needs of the chair would dictate that it should
not be used in order to preserve a uniquely signiﬁ cant
object, while the needs of the user would require inter-
vention to stabilize the chair for use, and thereby cause a
change to historical material. Another set of factors could
be a wealthy owner who is able to spend any amount of
money to modify an object; but it may be unethical to
do so. To continue the example of Washington’s chair, it
could be that no amount of money can make it ethically
okay to modify the chair. Or there may be perfect agree-
ment among all the stakeholders connected with an ob-
ject about the treatment goals for the object, only to ﬁ nd
that the end goal of the treatment is beyond the techni-
cal limits of what is possible, and therefore the treatment
goals must be modiﬁ ed. To help sort out these potentially
conﬂ icting factors a decision-making model is presented
called the Benzene Ring of Decision Making (Figure 5).
The Benzene Ring allows for six factors to be considered.
around the ring in any desired order. The model is not
limited to the six factors outlined here. Any relevant fac-
tor can be substituted into the model for consideration.
Obviously, the Benzene Ring does not answer questions
for you. Rather, it is a tool to be used to prompt thought-
ful consideration and discussion by the parties in control
of the treatment plan.
The decision-making process usually includes at least
two people: the owner of the object and the conservator,
although other parties may have a stake and a voice about
the results of the treatment. When considering compet-
ing factors that will inﬂ uence the course of treatment for
an object, the conservator will take the position of be-
ing an advocate for the object. This is important because
many of the voices heard in the decision-making process
are stakeholders with their own agendas that may or may
not have the best interest of the object in mind. This is
not to say that these people would deliberately harm an
object, but their judgment may be inﬂ uenced by old hab-
its, romantic notions, or satisfying a personal desire. In
these cases it is the responsibility of the conservator to
speak up for the best interests of the object, uninﬂ uenced
by personal wishes or ego.
Only then will the decision-
parties open for consideration.
The ﬁ rst thing we looked at was the broken glass in the
bonnet door. Naturally, there was the question of wheth-
er to replace the broken glass with new. Initial discussions
with the museum centered on the following questions. (1)
Is this glass original to the clock? (2) Does the crack in the
glass diminish the value of the clock, either monetarily
or historically? (3) Is the crack aesthetically acceptable for
exhibition? During this discussion the curator came for-
ward with a family story related to us in a written note
by Charles Dodge. It tells of the time when in 1889 the
family was moving and the movers placed the bonnet on
the ﬂ oor where young Olive Fairﬁ eld Dodge, aged 4, ran
to it and sat on the glass.
A true story like this actually
lends credibility that the glass is probably original. This
was a major factor in the decision to leave the broken
glass in place. This example points out the importance of
gathering as much information as you can before making
decisions that will affect the object.
6. I give credit for the Benzene Ring of Decision Making to Don Williams, my former teacher at the Smithsonian Institution,
Museum Support Center.
7. This concept is presented as an ideal to be striven for, but because of our imperfect human nature it is not perfectly attainable.
8. Dodge notes.
© 2012 National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, Inc. Reproduction prohibited without written permission.
The bonnet was missing most of the fretwork between
the pillars. Remnants of the original fretwork were de-
tached from the bonnet but these parts were incomplete.
In fact, when these remnants were discovered in a bag
of loose parts that came with the clock, it was not clear
if they were associated with the clock at all until they
were pieced together to ﬁ nd that they ﬁ t the radius of
the top of the bonnet. Based on Charles Dodge’s explana-
tion of the cutting of the fretwork, it became clear that
these pieces are what remain of the original fretwork.
To restore the original appearance of the clock, new fret-
rect form of the new fretwork was simpliﬁ ed by the fact
that there was a pencil tracing on paper of what appeared
to be the original fretwork found in the same paper bag
as the fretwork remnants (Figure 6). This tracing is identi-
cal in design to two other Moulton/Forsskol clocks in the
museum collection. It would be tempting at this point to
accept that the tracing came from the original fretwork.
But we are reminded of the possibility that the tracing
could have been taken from another clock. The key fac-
tor that led us to conclude that the tracing is authentic is
that it ﬁ ts the larger radius of the bonnet perfectly. You
will remember that the subject clock is larger than oth-
er known Moulton clocks. As such, the entire design is
scaled slightly larger than the other clocks. While this
tracing is scaled correctly, it is rather crude, so a new tem-
plate was created from it to use as the model for the new
fretwork (Figure 7).
The other major structural loss that required com-
pensation is the missing feet and bottom moldings. This
presented a similar question to the fretwork concerning
evidence for the correct form for the new feet. All that
remained was the molding on the front of the bottom
edge. Because there was no tracing of the original feet,
the answer was not as direct as it was for the fretwork.
The two other clocks in the museum collection have dis-
tinctly different feet styles (Figures 8 and 9). One clock
has turned legs, while the other has ogee bracket feet.
This discrepancy provides a moment of confusion until
it is realized that these two styles of feet require two dif-
ferent methods of attachment to the bottom of the clock
case. Bracket feet are typically attached to the bottom us-
ing a set of glue blocks behind the feet, while turned feet
are attached using tenons or dowels that penetrate into
the bottom of the case. Examination of the bottom of
the subject clock revealed sets of double tenons at all four
corners of the case (Figure 10). These tenons had been
cut when the original feet were removed, but the tenon
stubs remain in their mortises. This is conclusive that the
original feet had been some form of turned design. The
museum’s Moulton/Forsskol clock with turned feet was
used as the example for fabrication of the new feet.
New molding for the sides was fabricated to match
the existing molding on the front of the case bottom. It
should be noted that this molding also matches the bot-
tom molding on the museum’s clock that was used for
the feet design, lending even further credibility to the
correctness of the form of the new feet.
A novel method of attachment was employed for the
new moldings and the feet; the purpose of this is three-
fold: (1) The attachment was designed to be as noninva-
sive as possible so that original material is preserved as
much as possible. (2) An easily reversible attachment is
preferred so that, in the event new information prescribes
it, future changes can be readily performed. (3) A method
of attachment is desired that leaves the original tenon
stubs in place for future examination and scholarly study.
To this end, the side moldings were shaped onto extra
wide pieces of wood (Figure 11). The purpose of the wide
Figure 6. Templates for the fretwork on the bonnet. The
lower template was the tracing made by Charles Dodge; the
upper template is a reﬁ ned version of the template made by
East Point Conservation Studio.
make the new fretwork.
9. Dodge notes.
pieces is to accommodate the attachment of the new feet to
them using two stainless steel screws per each foot (Figure
12). This created two sets of side moldings and feet that were
then applied to the bottom of the case using four stainless
steel screws for each set (Figure 13). The result is a restoration
sets of double tenon stubs in their mortises at each
Figure 8, left. Moulton/Forsskol clock showing the turned feet
used as the model for the restoration feet on the subject clock.
Property of the Saco Museum, Saco, ME, accession number
1934.1.14. Figure 9, right. Moulton/Forsskol clock showing
bracket feet. Property of the Saco Museum, Saco, ME.
Figure 11. Bottom of the clock case showing the
restoration side moldings in place.
assembled as a unit and ready to be installed on the
bottom of the clock case.
Figure 13. Bottom of the clock case showing the
restoration moldings and feet installed.
of the feet having the correct appearance, based on the
best available evidence, which in turn preserves this evi-
dence and can be easily reversed (Figure 14).
Much has been made of the value of furniture ﬁ nishes
in recent years, and in response to this there has been a
development in the processes and accepted wisdom of the
conservation of ﬁ nishes. The major development in this
arena is the idea that the coatings on furniture are con-
sidered part of the object and they deserve preservation
as much as any other part of the artifact.
ings, cleaning to remove grime, or removal of incorrect
coatings that are disﬁ guring to the object or that hide an
earlier coating. In addition to these treatments, coating
losses may be in-ﬁ lled with new coatings to create a con-
tinuous ﬁ nish, or gloss levels may be adjusted to achieve
what is deemed a more appropriate appearance. Con-
sider also that colors are often adjusted to satisfy some
preconceived notion of correctness. Sufﬁ ce it to say that
the treatment of furniture ﬁ nishes is a nuanced pursuit
involving a continuum of possible results. Complicating
the successful treatment is that the myriad of subtle qual-
ities affecting the appearance of a ﬁ nish must be com-
municated between the conservator and the keeper of the
object so that the two parties understand each other and
so the result will satisfy everyone’s expectations.
During initial discussions about the ﬁ nish on the
clock the curator expressed that the darkened color was
not considered a particular detriment, because this could
be interpreted as appropriate or at least expected for the
age of the object. What was bothersome was the uneven
color and splotchy appearance (Figure 3). As usual, this
was a starting point for determining an appropriate treat-
ment plan. Before we begin any work on the coatings,
there are several questions we try to answer: (1) Is there
anything wrong with the existing ﬁ nish, or at least with
the ﬁ nish we can see? After all, we can only see the top
layer of coatings. (2) Are we looking at the original ﬁ n-
ish? If so, this factor would inﬂ uence our treatment plan
because original ﬁ nishes are rare. (3) Is there an earlier
ﬁ nish lurking underneath this visible coating? If so, what
is it, and what is its condition?
To try to answer these questions we typically examine
coatings in visible light and ultraviolet (UV) light. In visi-
ble light we could answer partially the ﬁ rst question men-
tioned above. We could see that the ﬁ nish was darkened,
which in this case was not considered a problem. But
the splotchy color would have to be improved to make
the clock ready for exhibition. The second question was
answered by a fortunate piece of information provided
again by notes in the museum ﬁ le from Charles Dodge.
He writes that the clock was maintained with periodic
applications of linseed oil and turpentine. This is an old
familiar recipe used by many well-intentioned caretak-
ers for “maintenance” of furniture ﬁ nishes. This recipe is
now known to be detrimental to the appearance of fur-
niture, and caretakers are recommended to never apply
linseed oil to furniture ﬁ nishes.
Linseed oil darkens as
ure an otherwise acceptable ﬁ nish. From the Dodge notes
we know we are not looking at the original ﬁ nish but
rather we are seeing a darkened linseed coating applied
over many years. This presents the third question: is an
earlier ﬁ nish existing under the linseed oil? To answer
this question we examined the coatings using a combina-
tion of visible and UV light. The advantage of using UV
for examination is that many coatings will autoﬂ uoresce
when exposed to UV radiation. This autoﬂ uorescence
can be used to distinguish between coatings of differ-
The ﬁ nish was examined in several
the linseed oil. First, a brass capital was removed from
one of the quarter columns, because the wood under the
hardware could have been protected from the linseed
oil applications (Figure 15). Many times earlier coatings
Figure 14. View of the proper left side of the case showing
the ﬁ nished molding and feet in place.
10. In this article the terms “ﬁ nish” and “coatings” are used interchangeably; they refer to the transparent or opaque layer or
layers on the surface of the object intended to enhance the appearance and to protect the surface.
11. Linseed oil has been found to darken as it ages. It does not dry completely and will attract dirt to the surface, which com-
pounds the darkening problem. Museums in recent years have undertaken laborious cleaning campaigns to remove old linseed
oil maintenance coatings.
12. It should be understood that autoﬂ uorescence is not used as a method to positively identify the precise constituents of a
coating. Rather, it is used to differentiate between coatings. Autoﬂ uorescence is usually exhibited by characteristic colors emit-
ted by compounds when exposed to UV radiation. This process is usually carried out in a darkened room to negate the effect of
visible light, which would inﬂ uence the process.
can be found underneath hardware. In visible light it was
evident that a transparent coating with a moderate gloss
was present (Figure 16). In UV light this coating autoﬂ uo-
resces a bright yellow/green color, which is very different
from the surrounding linseed oil coating (Figure 17). This
suggests that the linseed oil was most likely not the origi-
nal coating and that an earlier coating was ﬂ uorescing
yellow/green. Next, we wanted to ﬁ nd out if this earlier
coating existed in other places on the clock. A cleaning
solution to remove the linseed oil was developed and test-
ed on a small area (1 cm x 2 cm).
This cleaning solution
the undercoating intact. This area was then examined
the clock case below the
waist door in UV light
showing a cleaning test and
autoﬂ uorescence of the
coatings underneath the
Figure 17, far left. Proper
right side of the clock
case in UV light showing
autoﬂ uorescence of the coating
under the brass capital.
13. A discussion of the chemistry of cleaning solutions is beyond the scope of this article. For the interested reader the recipe for
this particular solution is 2 g Pemulen, 200 ml water, 20 ml triethanolamine (TEA) buffered to a pH of 7.5-8.0 using 5 percent
citric acid in water. The gel is applied to the surface and allowed to remain for 1 to 2 minutes and then removed with cotton
sponges followed by a rinse solution of 10 percent TEA buffered to pH 8.0 using 5 percent citric acid, followed by a rinse using
under UV light, and it was observed that the cleaned area
had a different ﬂ uorescence than the surrounding ﬁ nish
(Figure 18). (Note that some UV photographs show a vio-
let/blue cast of the surfaces as in Figures 17 and 18. This
is a reﬂ ection of the color of the UV illuminating lamp
and not autoﬂ uorescence. It’s a phenomenon that hap-
pens when the camera’s angle of view is perpendicular
to the surface and the blue light is reﬂ ected back toward
the camera lens. Even when this happens a difference in
coatings can be observed, as in Figure 18.) This was the
ﬁ rst indication that an earlier coating existed below the
linseed oil. Armed with this information, a larger area (4
cm x 4 cm) was cleaned to see if similar results could be
Figure 15, far left.
Proper right side of the
clock case showing
the brass capital at
the top of the quarter
the brass capital
removed and existing
ﬁ nish underneath the
obtained, which they were (Figure 19). At this point in
the treatment we consulted with the museum staff to in-
form them of the results and to discuss treatment possi-
bilities. The two most viable options included (1) leaving
the darkened linseed oil intact and toning the splotchy
areas to blend with the dark ﬁ nish or (2) removing the
linseed oil to recover the older coating. In this case it was
decided that there was enough evidence for the presence
of an intact earlier coating that could be exposed if the
linseed oil were removed. The thinking was that by re-
moving the linseed oil we could achieve more than one
goal. First, the splotchy areas would be removed along
with the darkened linseed oil. Second, an historic coating
could be recovered that was more transparent and would
convey wood tones closer to the original intent of the
maker. It should be pointed out that through this process
no original material was removed; instead, historic mate-
rial was exposed for the ﬁ rst time in many years. Once
all the linseed oil was removed, a very common phe-
nomenon with old coatings was observed. The recovered
coating was intact but very thin, with a dry appearance.
This dry look may have been what precipitated the ill-
advised application of the oil in the ﬁ rst place. Nonethe-
less, the dry-looking ﬁ nish was not acceptable for exhibi-
tion purposes. Therefore, a thin saturation varnish (B-72)
was applied to improve the appearance of the ﬁ nish by
improving the gloss level by a small degree (Figure 20).
It is important to note that in this case the B-72 varnish
is completely reversible. It can be removed at any time
without disturbing the original ﬁ nish that is underneath.
Reversibility of coatings requires an understanding of the
solubility parameters of both the historic coating and of
the new coating. The
new coating must be
soluble in a solvent
that will not affect
the historic coating.
Discreet solvent tests
on an older coating
will usually provide
a good starting point
for choosing an ap-
varnish to be used for
visible light showing a cleaned area that was presented to
the curator for discussion about the possible removal of the
Bottom panel of
the clock case
that has been
coated with B-72
Figure 21. The painted dial showing grime removal in
rocking ship showing the
puckered paint ﬂ akes.
The painted dial was in remarkably good condition,
with the exception of a heavy layer of grime. A clean-
ing solution with a neutral pH was used to remove the
grime layer (Figure 21).
But before the cleaning could
paint required consolidation (Figure 22). The act of clean-
ing a surface is abrasive even when using cotton swabs.
For this reason, unstable paint must be stabilized prior
to cleaning. The unstable paint in question was located
on the rocking ship, which is made of thin-gauge tin. It
is likely that the delamination of the paint here can be
attributed to the ﬂ exing action of this thin metal. The
consolidant is applied to the edges of the delaminating
paint and allowed to wick under the paint surface.
evaporates. Then, using a warm spatula, the paint is gen-
tly pressed down onto the metal. The gentle heat softens
the deformed paint so that it will lay ﬂ at and the heat
reactivates the consolidant enough to create enough tack
so that the paint sticks to the metal substrate.
14. The cleaning solution for the painted dial is a 2 percent solution of triammonium citrate in water, pH adjusted to 7.5.
15. The consolidant used here is a 10 percent solution of Aquazol™ 200 in distilled water.
New hardware was obtained and installed to compen-
sate for the losses. The form of the new ﬁ nials is based
on other examples of Moulton clocks that are believed to
have their original brass ﬁ nials (Figure 25). The lock for
the waist door was chosen from a standard hardware sup-
plier. One of their readily available locks happened to ﬁ t
the half-mortise well enough so that no modiﬁ cation to
the door or the lock was necessary (Figure 26). The holes
for the attachment screws on the new lock align perfect-
ly with the two existing screw holes in the door. Even
though the new lock has four screw attachment holes,
only two screws were used to attach the lock in the origi-
nal holes; no new holes were drilled and two holes on the
lock are left vacant (Figure 27). It is reasoned that drilling
new holes to accommodate all four attachment screws in
the new lock would confuse or mislead future scholars as
to which screw holes are the work of the original maker.
This reasoning works because using two screws is sufﬁ -
cient to hold the lock securely.
Cleaning painted and ﬁ nished surfaces is a subject
unto itself. Here are a few words of advice on the topic.
The purpose of cleaning is to remove unwanted material
while leaving the desired material intact. Most household
cleaners are too aggressive for conservation purposes.
They tend to have a very high pH, which can soften most
varnishes. A varnish may not be noticeably affected by
the ﬁ rst few applications of a high pH cleaning agent;
but chemical reactions are happening. Repeated clean-
ings using a high pH agent will have a cumulative effect
Figure 25. The clock bonnet showing the new fretwork and
reproduction ﬁ nials.
mortise in the
screws in the
and will incrementally degrade a ﬁ nish. Many cleaners
have an oily component that requires aggressive rinsing
to remove. These factors are why conservators formulate
custom cleaning solutions for their treatments of old
ﬁ nishes. Cleaning solutions are designed to be targeted
at removing only the unwanted material. Conservators
of paintings have been developing and testing targeted
cleaning solutions for decades. In recent years furniture
conservators have drawn on the experience of painting
conservators and have applied the same knowledge and
sensibility to the cleaning of furniture ﬁ nishes. The dan-
ger of using a commercial cleaning product is that it may
remove more than you bargained for.
This article has attempted to illustrate the concepts of
modern furniture conservation as applied to a clock case.
Those concepts include the idea that an object exists as
a document of its life and as testament to its maker. The
conservation of an object often involves restoration of
compromised parts or ﬁ nishes. Restorations should be as
accurate as possible based on a complete study of the ob-
ject and all the related information. Whenever possible,
the restoration should be distinguishable from the origi-
nal work, and the new restoration should be as reversible
as is practical. So doing will avoid confusion about the
work of the original maker versus the work of the con-
servator. The purpose of a restoration is to represent the
object as true as possible but not to deceive about what
is original and what is not. In this way, an object can be
understood for what it is rather than for what we have
made it into.
1. Ammonium citrate—Spectrum Laboratory Prod-
ucts, Inc., 14422 South San Pedro Street, Gardena, CA
90248, 1-800-772-8786, www.spectrumchemical.com
2. Aquazol™ -poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). Soluble in wa-
ter, acetone, ethanol. Talas, 20 West 20th St., New York,
NY 10011, 212-219-0770, www.talasonline.com, info@
3. Citric acid—Spectrum Laboratory Products, Inc.,
14422 South San Pedro Street, Gardena, CA 90248, 1-800-
4. Paraloid B-72®; a registered trademark for a clear,
colorless, thermoplastic acrylic resin. Composed of an
ethyl methacrylate (70 percent) and methyl acrylate (30
percent) copolymer. Soluble in toluene, xylene, acetone,
carbon tetrachloride, MEK. Paraloid® B-72 made after
1976 is soluble in ethanol. Slightly soluble in isopropa-
nol. Insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, water, oils,
grease. Manufactured by Rohm and Hass, Philadelphia,
PA 19105; available at Talas, 20 West 20th St., New York,
5. Pemulen® TR-2—Protameen Chemicals Inc., 375
Minnisink Rd, Totowa, NJ 07511, 973-256-4374, www.
6. Toluene—Fisher Scientiﬁ c, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410.
7. Triethanolamine—Spectrum Laboratory Products,
Inc., 14422 South San Pedro Street, Gardena, CA 90248,
About the Author
Jon Brandon is the owner and principal conserva-
tor of East Point Conservation Studio, specializing in
preserving historic furniture, located in Brunswick, ME.
Jon has 30 years of experience and is a graduate of the
Smithsonian Furniture Conservation Training Program.
He received further training in the furniture conserva-
tion laboratory at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and
is a professional associate in the American Institute for
Oct. 11-13, 2012
The Symposium opens in Minneapolis, MN,
on Thursday evening, October 11, 2012, with the
James Arthur Lecture. On Friday, October 12, and
Saturday, October 13, some of the world’s authori-
ties will present new material about carriage clocks!
A world-class display of exquisite carriage clocks
(European, American, and miniatures) will be
The Symposium will close on Saturday,
October 13, with a banquet and presentation.
James Arthur Lecture: John Hubby.
Doug Cowan: Traveling Clocks Prior
to the 19th Century.
David Penney: The English Carriage Clock
as Recorded by Charles Allix: An Updated Review.
David Grace: French Carriage Clocks.
Peter Fritsch: Viennese Traveling Clocks
in the Austria-Hungarian Empire.
Ken Hogwood: American Carriage Clocks
—Trash or Treasure?
Philip Poniz: Breguet Carriage Clocks.
John Kirk: Carriage Clock Escapements.
Scheduled Speakers and Topics:
See the July 2012 Mart & Highlights for additional program information or visit
nawcc.org --> Ward Francillon Time Symposium homepage link for up-to-date information.
© 2012 National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, Inc. Reproduction prohibited without written permission.