Draft syllabus -subject to change

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Spring 2018, Tuesday, 9:30-12:30

Office hours: By appointment

This syllabus is subject to change or revision due to the need to make course adjustments based on the instructor’s discretion.

This seminar course aims to introduce students some key philosophical concepts and a set of central claims of art in relation to politics. The first part of the course introduces central concepts in aesthetics and the philosophy of art and the general approach underlying research in art. The central questions of this section are: What is art, and can it ever be defined? Are there objective standards for determining artistic value or is beauty in the eye of the beholder?” What is aesthetic taste? Is there such a thing as good taste? Can we prove that one work of art or aesthetic taste is better than another? What is the meaning of a work of art? How does art relate to emotion? Does art give us knowledge? What does our experience of art tell us about the nature of reality? The second part of the course will explore various issues surrounding freedom of expression in relation to art. It will explore bases of freedom of expression in the political theories in order to provide a general framework to what should be understood by the concept of “freedom” in the concept of art. Areas covered will include: (i) Theoretical frameworks for analyzing freedom of expression, defamation, hate expressions, obscenity, and pornography in art; (ii) Justifications for freedom of expression in art and how restrictions on freedom of expression art related issues might themselves be justified.


1. Seminar Presentation (35%)

Students will be required to choose one of the readings from the syllabus and to make a presentation in class. The presentation should explain the argument and the conclusion of the reading and, ideally, include critical comments. A good presentation cannot be a mere summary of the readings but provide both an accurate summary of the argument of readings, and a critical analysis of some part of that arguments. Students are expected to post their presentations before the class. Presentations should no more than 20 minutes.
2. Analytical Research Paper (45%)

Students will be required to write one long critical analysis paper of approximately 20 to 25 pages and double-spaced in 12-point font with 1” margins. The papers should contain a clearly stated the research question that student find relevant, appropriate, and useful from the material covered this course. Students may write papers on a topic of their own choice, but they should clear it with me in advance

3. Seminar Participation (20%)

Discussion participation is an integral part of this course, and assumes that students will read the course material thoughtfully and in an engaged manner prior to class. Students are expected to attend every class and more than two unexcused absences will result in a failing grade.

Helpful companions, guides, and anthologies of articles include:

Budd, Malcolm. 1995. Values of Art. London, UK: Penguin.

Cahn, Steven, and Aaron Meskin, eds. 2008. Aesthetics: A Comprehensive Anthology.

Carrol, Noel. 1999. Philosophy of Art: A contemporary introduction. London, UK: Routledge.

Cooper, David E. A Companion to Aesthetics. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1992.

Davies, Stephen, et al., eds. 2009. A Companion to Aesthetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Dickie, George, and Richard Sclafanı, eds, 1997. Aesthetics: A Critical Anthology. New York: St Martin's Press.

Gaut, Berys and Dominic McIver Lopes, eds. 2013. The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. 2nd ed. London, UK: Routledge.

Harrison, Charles. 2002. Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, ed. Harrison Charles,Paul Wood. Oxford & Cambridge

Kelly, Michael, ed. 1998. Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. NY: Oxford UP, 4 vol.

Kieran, Matthew, ed. 2006. Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Kivy, Peter, ed. 2004. The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Lamarque, Peter, and Stein H. Olsen, eds. 2004. Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. Oxford: Blackwell.

Lamarque, Peter, and Stein Haugom Olsen, eds. 2004. Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art—The Analytic Tradition: An Anthology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Levinson, Jerrold, ed. 2005. The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP.

Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Margolis, Joseph. 1987. Philosophy Looks at The Arts: Contemporary Readings In Aesthetics. Philadelphia, PN: Temple UP.

Neill, Alex, and Aaron Ridley, eds., 1995. The Philosophy of Art. London: McGraw-Hill.

Osborne, Harold, ed. 1970. Oxford Companion to Art. NY: Oxford at the Clarendon Press,

Stecker, Robert and Ted Gracyk, eds. 2010. Aesthetics Today: A Reader. Plymouth, UK: Rowan & Littlefield

Stecker, Robert. 2010. Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art: An Introduction. Plymouth, UK: Rowan & Littlefield.
Some useful web sites for art

MyStudios - www.mystudios.com/home.html

Artchive - www.artchive.com

Artcylopedia - www.artcyclopedia.com

London Aesthetics Forum/ Aesthetics Bites - www.londonaestheticsforum.org/?page_id=2412
Required texts: Course packet (available in DROPBOX file sharing system and in the photocopy center)
Schedule of Weekly Readings

Note: The reading list is subject to change; changes will be announced at least two

weeks in advance. An asterisk (*) indicates the compulsory reading.
WEEK I: Introduction: Problem of Defining Art
WEEK II: Art, Truth, Reality and Representation

Aristotle. 1995. The Politics of Aristotle. Sir Ernest Barker, (edt.) Oxford: Oxford University Press Bk. 8 Chs. 5-7 (1339a11ff.).

*Aristotle. 1995. Aristotle: Poetics (Loeb Classical Library) Halliwell, Stephen (edt) , Harvard §§1-15.
*Currie, Greg. 2004. "Imagination and make-believe", In B. Gaut and D. McIver Lopes (eds) The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. London, Routledge. Second edition.
*Gombrich, E. H. 2002. "Truth and the Stereotype”: in Art and Illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation. 6th ed. London, UK: Phaidon.
Elliott, R.K., 1972. 'The Imagination in the Experience of Art', Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures, 6 (1972): 88-105.
Hanson, Louise. 2014. 'Meta-Aesthetics', in M. Kelly, ed., Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Morgan, Douglas. 1967. "Must Art Tell the Truth?" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 26 (Fall): 17-27.
*Plato. 1991. The Republic of Plato. Allan Bloom (trans and edt.), New York: Basic Books II, III, X
Schudson, Michael. 1989. “How Culture Works: Perspectives from Media Studies on the Efficacy of Symbols.” Theory and Society 18 (2): 153-180.
Stock, Kathleen. 2011. 'Fictive Utterance and Imagining', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Suppl. Vol., 85 (2011): 145-61.
*Walton, Kendall. 1990. Mimesis as Make-Believe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (I, sect. I.1 'Imagining' and Ch. 8) Library BH301.R47W35 1990 Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Wilde, Oscar. 1960. "Nature's Imitation of Art.” In Modern Book of Esthetics Melvin Rader (edt.). New York: Holt.
*Zangwill, Nick. 2005. 'Aesthetic Realism 1', in J. Levinson, ed., Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 63-79

WEEK III: Art and Expression
*Beardsley, Monroe. 1958. "Taste Can Be Disputed." From Swarthmore College Alumni Bulletin 56 (October): 1-5.
Beardsley, Monroe. 1958. "Reasons in Aesthetic Judgments." From Aesthetics. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World,
*Collingwood, Robin. 1938. The Principles of Art, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 192-201
Bentham, Jeremy. 1830. The Rationale of Reward, London: Robert Heward. Bk. III, Ch. 1

*Burke, Edmund. 1958. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful James T. Boulton (edt) New York: Columbia University Press

*Croce, Benedotto. 1992. The Aesthetic as the Science of Expression and of the Linguistic Colin Lyas, (trans.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, General Part I: Theory,
Golub, Leon. 1955. “A Critique of Abstract Expressionism” in College Art Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2. (Winter), pp. 142-147.
*Langer, Susanne. 1957. “Expressiveness” in Problems of Art. New York Scribner.
*Schiller, Friedrich. 1967.On the Aesthetic Education of Man: In a Series of Letters. Elizabeth M. Wilkinson and L. A. Willoughby.edt. And trans) Oxford: Clarendon Press,
*Tolstoy, Leo. 1995. [1897]. What is Art? Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (trans). London: Penguin.

WEEK IV: Subjective and Objective Judgments of Art
*Currıe, Gregory. 1989. An Ontology of Art. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Hopkins, Robert. 2009. “Objectivity and Realism in Aesthetics”. In A Companion to Aesthetics, Stephen Davies (edt.), 444-9. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
*Hume, David. 2014. ‘Of the Standard of Taste,’” in Michael Kelly (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, Volume 3: 364–68
*Kant, Immanuel. 2000. Critique of the Power of Judgment (The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant), Paul Guyer (edt.), Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, (trans) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. “Critique of the Power of Judgement. Introduction,” §§1-38. 41-54
Margolis, Joseph. 1976. “Robust Relativism”. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 35: 37-46. Repr. as Ch. 25 in Philosophy Looks at The Arts: Contemporary Readings In Aesthetics. 3rd ed., ed. Joseph Margolis. Philadelphia, PN: Temple UP, 1987, 484-98.
McDowell, John. 1983. “Aesthetic value, objectivity, and the fabric of the world”. Ch. 1 in Pleasure, Preference, and Value: Studies in Philosophical Aesthetics, ed. Eva Schaper, 1-16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP.
*Meskin, Aaron. 2004. 'Aesthetic Testimony: What Can We Learn from Others About Beauty and Art?' Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 69, no. 1: 65-91.
*Miller, Richard W. 1998. “Three versions of objectivity: aesthetic, moral, and scientific”. In Aesthetics and Ethics: Essays at the intersection, ed. Jerrold Levinson, 26-58. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP.
Ross, Stephanie. 2011. “Ideal Observer Theories” in Aesthetics. Philosophy Compass 6 (8): 513-22.
Rowe, M. W. 1999. “The Objectivity of Aesthetic Judgements.” British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (1): 40-52.
*Schellekens, Elisabeth. 2006. “Towards a reasonable objectivism for aesthetic judgements.” British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (2): 163-77.
Schellekens, Elisabeth. 2008. “Three Debates in Meta-Aesthetics. In New Waves” in Aesthetics, eds. Kathleen Stock and Katherine Thomson-Jones, 170-187. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sibley, Frank N. and Michael Tanner. 1968. “Objectivity and Aesthetics” Proceedings of the *Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 42: 31-72.
Sibley, Frank 1959. “Aesthetic Concepts” in Philosophical Review 68 (4):421-450
Summers, David. 1993. “Why did Kant call taste a “common sense”?” In Eighteenth-Century Aesthetics and the Reconstruction of Art, ed. Paul Mattick, Jr., 120-51. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP.
Tatarkiewicz, Wladyslaw. 1963. “Objectivity and Subjectivity in the History of Aesthetics”. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (2): 157-73.
Walton, Kendall. 1970. “Categories of Art” in the Philosophical Review, Vol. 79, No. 3
WEEK V: Essential and Relational Definitions of Art
*Beardsley, M.C. 1983 ‘An Aesthetic Definition of Art’, in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art: the Analytic Tradition : An Anthology. Peter Lamarque, Stein Haugom Olsen /edt). London: Wiley.  BH39 .A296 2004  
Caroll, Noel. 2004. “Art and Human Nature” in The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 62, No. 2, 95-107
Davies, S. 1991. Definitions of Art, Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press.
*Davies, Stephen. 2003. 'Ontology of Art', in J. Levinson, ed., Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 155-80.
*Dickie, George. 1969. ‘Defining Art’, The American Philosophical Quarterly, 6: 253–6.
Dutton, Denisç 2006. “A Naturalist Definition of Art”, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64: 367-‐377
*Gaut, Berys. 2005. “The Cluster Account of Art Defended.” British Journal of Aesthetics 45: 273-88.
*Goodman, Nelson. 1978. When is art? In Ways of World making. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett. 57-70

Hyman, John. 2006. The Objective Eye: Color, Form, and Reality in the Theory of Art. London, UK: Chicago UP. (Ch. 4)

*Kieran, Matthew. 2008. “Why Ideal Critics Are Not Ideal: Aesthetic Character, Motivation and Value”. British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (3): 278-94.
*Kristeller, Paul Oskar. 1951-2. The Modern System of the Arts: A Study in the History of Aesthetics. 2 Parts. Journal of the History of Ideas 23 (4): 496-527, and Journal of the History of Ideas 13 (1): 17-46.
Levinson, Jerrold. 1993. ‘Extending Art Historically’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 51: 411–23.
*Levinson, Jerrold. 2002. “The Irreducible Historicality of the Concept of Art” The British Journal of Aesthetics 42(4):367-379
Levinson, Jerrold. 1989. “Refining Art Historically”, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47: 21–33.
*Weitz, Morris. 1956. The Role of Theory in Aesthetics. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 15: 27-35.
*Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 2001. Philosophical Investigations. Blackwell Publishing §§65-75
Wolterstorff, Nicholas. 1975. 'Toward an Ontology of Art Works', Noûs, 9: 115-42.

WEEK VI: Aesthetic Values and Art

*Bourriaud, Nicolas. 2002. Relational Aesthetics. Les Presses du Réel,

*Budd, Malcolm. 2008. “The Intersubjective Validity of Aesthetic Judgements”. Ch. 4 in Budd, Malcolm. Aesthetic Essays. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP.

*Carlson, Allen. 2002. Aesthetics and the Environment: The Appreciation of Nature, Art and Architecture London: Routledge. pp. 55-128.

*Danto, Arthur 1998. “After the End of Art: A Philosophical Defense” in History and Theory, Vol. 37, No: 4. 127-144.
Davies, Stephen. 1990. “Functional and Procedural Definitions of Art” in Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Summer), pp. 99-106
*Hutter, Michael and Richard Shusterman 2006. “Value and the Valuation of Art in Economic and Aesthetic Theory,” in Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, vol. 1, p. 309 Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.) Chicago: Chicago University Press.
*Goodman, N. 1968, “Reality Remade” in Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols, Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.,
*Kulka, Tomas. 1988. "Kitsch." British Journal of Aesthetics 28 (Winter): 18-27.
Kulka, Tomas. 1981. The artistic and the aesthetic value of art in British Journal of Aesthetics 21 (4):336-350
*Lamarque, Peter. “Artistic Value.” In Central Issues in Philosophy, ed. John Shand, 231-43. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
*Nehamas, Alexander 2000. “Essay on Beauty and Judgment” “An Essay on Beauty and Judgment,” The Three Penny Review, Winter Reprinted in Joseph Tanke, ed., The Continuum Companion to Aesthetics
*Savile, Anthony 1985. “The Test of Time: An Essay in Philosophical Aesthetics” Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Budd, Malcolm. 1996. Values of Art: Pictures, Poetry, and Music London Penguin Books
*Calinescu, Matei. 1987. Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism. Duke University Press. Chp. “Kitsch”
Cohen, Ted. 1999. “High and Low Art and High and Low Audiences” in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (2):137-143
Freud, Sigmund. 1908. “The Relation of the Poet to Day-Dreaming” in Character and Culture, ed., intro. Philip Rieff New York: Collier. pp. 34-43.
Harrison, Bernard. 1960. “Some Uses of ʻGoodʼ in Criticism” in Mind 69 (274):206-222.
*Greenberg, Clement. 1961. “Avant-Garde and Kitsch” in Art and Culture Cirtical Essays. Beacon Press 133-138
Kundera, Milan.1999. “The Nature of Kitsch” The Unbearable Lightness of Being. New York: Harper Perennial pp. 397-398;
Marcuse, Herbert. 1978i The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics Boston: Beacon.
Porteous, Douglas J. 1996. Environmental Aesthetics: Ideas, politics and planning Routledge
Sharpe, R. A. 2000. “The Empiricist Theory of Artistic Value”. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (4): 321-32.
Swidler, Ann. 1986. Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies. American Sociological Review 51 (2):273-86, esp 273-78 & conclusion.
Walton, Kendall 1993 “How Marvelous! Toward a Theory of Aesthetic Value” in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 51 (3):499-510.

WEEK VII: Art, Form and Institution
Art and Form

*Bell, Clive. 1913. “Art and Significant Form” in Art

*Bell, Clive. 1992 “Art” and The Aesthetic Hypothesis from Art” in Art in Theory, 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, eds. Oxford: Blackwell, 113-16.
*Hopkins, David. 2000. “The Politics of Modernism: Abstract Expressionism and the European Informel” in After Modern Art 1945-2000. Oxford University press. pp 5 to 34
Hyman, John. 2006. “The Objective Eye: Color, Form, and Reality” in the Theory of Art. London, UK: Chicago UP. Chs. 4-8.
*Greenberg, Clement. 1965. “Abstract, Representational, and so forth,” in Abstract, Representational and so forth Beacon Press 133-138
*Klingender, F. 1992. "Content and Form in Art", in C. Harrison and P. Wood, Art in Theory 1900–1990. London: Blackwell, pp. 422–423.
Schapiro, Meyer. 1966. “On Perfection, Coherence, and Unity of Form and Content”. In Art and Philosophy: A Symposium, ed. Sidney Hook, New York: New York University Press
Pippin, Robert B. 2002. “What Was Abstract Art? (From the Point of View of Hegel” in Critical Inquiry, vol. 29, no.1

Art and Institution
*Baumol, William J. 2006. “The Arts in the “New Economy” in Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, vol. 1, p. 309 Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.) Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Becker, Howard S. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp.1-67, 227-70.
*Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. “The Market of Symbolic Goods.” In The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. New York: Columbia University

Press, Chapter 1.

*Bourdieu. Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste R. Nice, Trans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. “Introduction to Distinction” and “The Aristocracy of Culture”
*Danto, Arthur. 1964 “The Artworld” The Journal of Philosophy 61 (19): 574.
*Dickie, G. 1974. Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis, Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press
Dickie, G. 1984. The Art Circle: A Theory of Art, New York: Haven. Essays in Interpretive Anthropology pp.94-120, London: Fontana
*Geertz, Clifford. 1993. "Art as a Cultural System" in Local Knowledge: Further
*Wollheim, Richard edt. 1980. The Institutional Theory of Art. Supp. essay 1 in Art and Its Objects. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP. 157-166 Library BH39 .W65 1980, MİMARLIK FAK. KÜTÜPHANESİ

WEEK VIII: Experience and Art
Beardsley, Monroe. 1981 “Arts in the Life of Man” In, Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism. Edt. M. Beardsley Indianapolis: Hackett, 557-92
*Beardsley, Monroe, 1982. 'The Aesthetic Experience', in The Aesthetic Point of View:Selected Essays Edt. M. Beardsley Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
*Bullough, Edward. 1912. ''Psychical Distance' as a Factor in Art and as an Aesthetic Principle”, British Journal of Psychology, 5: 87-117.
*Carroll, Noël. 2002. “Aesthetic Experience Revisited” British Journal of Aesthetics, 42 pp. 145-168
*Dewey, John. 1934. Art as Experience. New York: Penguin. 35-82 and 187-324
*Iseminger, G., 2003, “Aesthetic Experience,” in The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, J. Levinson (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 99–116.
Iseminger, G.,, 2004, The Aesthetic Function of Art, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press
Levinson, Jerrold. 1998. “Wollheim on Pictorial Representation”. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56: 227-33. In Contemplating Art. Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 2006. 366-85.
*Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1964. “Eye and Mind.” The Primacy of Perception. Ed. James E. Edie. Trans. Carleton Dallery. Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 159-190.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1993. “The Birth of Tragedy,” in The Birth of Tragedy of the Spirit of Music. Ed. Michael Tanner, trans. Shaun Whiteside. Penguin Books.
*Schlesinger, G. 1979. “Aesthetic Experience and the Definition of Art” in The British Journal of Aesthetics, 19: 167–76.
*Shusterman, Richard. 2000. "Art and Theory Between Experience and Practice" in Pragmatist Aesthetics: living beauty, rethinking art. 2nd ed. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Library BH39 .S58 2000, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Shusterman, Richard 2007. Aesthetic Experience: From analysis to Eros” in Aesthetic Experience. Edt. R. Shustrman and A. Tomlin. London: Routledge.
*Stecker, Robert. 2006. “Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Value”. Philosophy Compass 1 (1): 1-10.
*Wollheim, Richard. 1980. Art and its objects CH “Seeing-as, seeing-in, and pictorial representation”. Supplementary essay 5 in, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 205-26.

WEEK IX: Authors, Intentions Meanings and Interpretations
Intentions and Meanings
*Beardsley, Monroe C. 1982. “Intentions and Interpretations: A Fallacy Revived” in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art – The Analytic Tradition, ed. Peter Lamarque & Stein Haugom Olsen (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), pp. 189–199. Library BH39 .A296 2004, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Beardsley, Monroe C. 1970. The Possibility of Criticism Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
*Carroll, Noël. 1992. 'Art, Intention and Conversation', in G. Iseminger, ed., Intention and Interpretation Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. pp. 97-131.

Carroll, Noel. 2001. “Hypothetical and "Interpretation and Intention: The Debate between Hypothetical and Actual Intentionalism”, in Beyond Aesthetics: Philosophical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 197–213

*Carroll, Noel. 2003. Beyond Aesthetics: Philosophical Essays. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP. (Part III)
Davies, Stephen, 1982. "The Aesthetic Relevance of Painters' and Writers' Intentions," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 41, 1, 65–76
Davies, Stephen. 1995. "Relativism in Interpretation," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 53, 1, 8–13
Davies, Stephen. 1996. "Interpreting Contextualities," Philosophy and Literature, 20, 1, 20–38;
*Davies, Stephen. 2007. “Authors’ Intentions, Literary Interpretation, and Literary Value.” Ch.11 in Philosophical Perspectives on Art. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP.
Dickie, George & Kent Wilson, "The Intentional Fallacy: Defending Beardsley," in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 48, 3
*Iseminger, Gary, ed. 1992. Intention & Interpretation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
*Hirsch, E. D. Jr. 1967. Validity in Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Levinson, Jerrold. 2010. “Defending Hypothetical Intentionalism.” British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (2): 139-150.
Levinson, Jerrold. 1999. "Two Notions of Interpretation," in Interpretation and Its Boundaries, ed. Arto Haapala & Ossi Naukkarinen Helsinki: Helsinki University Press.
Levinson, Jerrold. 1992. “Intention and Interpretation: A Last Look," in Intention and Interpretation, ed. Gary Iseminger Philadelphia: Temple University Press), pp. 221–256

Levinson, Jerrold. 1995. “Messages in Art” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (2):184 – 198.

*Levinson, Jerrold. 2006. “Hypothetical Intentionalism: Statement, Objections, and Replies.” Ch.18 in Contemplating Art: Essays in Aesthetics. Oxford, UK: Clarendon. Library BH39 .L48 2006, MİMARLIK FAK. KÜTÜPHANESİ
*Livingston, Paisley. 2005. “Intention in art”. In The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, ed. Jerrold Levinson. 275-90. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP.
Livingston, Paisley. 2005. Art and Intention: A philosophical study. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
Lyas, Colin and Robert Stecker. 1992. Intention and interpretation. In A Companion to Aesthetics, eds. Stephen Davies, 227-30. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
*Lyas, Colin. 1983. “Anything Goes: The Intentional Fallacy Revisited.” British Journal of Aesthetics 23 (4): 291-305.
Olsen, Stein Haugom. 1987. "Authorial Intention”, in The End of Literary Theory Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 29–41,
*Olsen, Stein Haugom. 2004. "Modes of Interpretation and Interpretative Constraints," British Journal of Aesthetics, 44, 2, 135–148;
Savedoff, Barbara. 1989. “The Art Object”, in British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (2):160-167.
Stecker, Robert. 2006. “Moderate Actual Intentionalism Defended.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (4): 429-38.
*Weitz, Morris. 1955. "Truth in Literature." Revue Internationale de Philosophie 9: 116-129.
*Wimsatt, W. K., and Monroe C. Beardsley. 1954. “The Intentional Fallacy.” in The Verbal Icon: Studies in the Meaning of Poetry. Lexington: U of Kentucky P,
Authors, Language and Interpretations
*Danto, Arthur. 1983. Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art. Harvard University Press.
*Dilthey, Wilhelm. 1900. "The Development of Hermeneutics" in [1900] (pp. 247-263, ed. and trans. Hans Peter Rickman. pp. 247-263
Fish, Stanley. 1980. "Interpreting the Variorum” in Is There a Text in this Class? Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press. pp. 147-173.
*Foucault, Michel 1997. “What Is an Author?” Language, Counter-Memory, Practice. Donald F. Bouchard, ed. Cornell University Press, pp. 113-38
Gadamer, Hans-Georg. 1976. “The Universality of the Hermeneutical Problem”, in Gadamer, Hans G. Philosophical Hermeneutics. Tran. Ed. David E. Linge. Berkeley: University of California Press,

*Gadamer, Hans-Georg. 1989. Truth and Method. New York: Crossroad.

*Goodman, Nelson. 1976. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. 2nd ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett. Ch. 1.

*Hebdige, Dick. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge. Library HQ799.G7 H43 1979, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi

Heidegger, Martin 1971. On the Way to Language. Trans. Peter D. Hertz. San Francisco: Harper
*Heidegger, Martin 2002. Basic Writings, "On the Origin of the Work of Art." 1st Harper Perennial Modern Thought Edition., David Farrell Krell (edt.) New York: HarperCollins, pp. 143-212.
Heidegger, Martin. 1986. Being and Time. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. (trans) New York: Harper & Row.
*Nathan, Daniel O. 2006. "Art, Meaning, and Artist's Meaning," in Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art, Matthew Kieran Malden (edt.) London: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 282–293 Library C652 2006, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Nehamas, Alexander. 1981. "The Postulated Author: Critical Monism as a Regulative Ideal," Critical Inquiry, 8, 1 pp. 133–149
*Raz, Joseph. 1995. Interpretation Without Retrieval. In Law and Interpretation: essays in legal philosophy, ed. Andrei Marmor. Oxford, UK: Clarendon. Library K231 .R39 2009, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Ricoeur, P. 1984. "The Threefold Mimesis” in Time and Narrative, McLaughlin, K. & Pellauer, D. Trans.,1, University of Chicago Press: Chicago. pp.52-87.
*Sontag, Susan. 1966. “Against Interpretation” in Against Interpretation and Other Essays, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 4-14
Stecker, Robert, 1997. Artworks: Definition, Meaning, Value. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Vaisey, Stephen. 2009. Motivation and Justification: A Dual-Process Model of Culture in Action. American Journal of Sociology 114 (6):
*Walton, Kendall L. 1974. “Are Representations Symbols?” The Monist 58 (2): 236-54.

WEEK X: Art and Ethical Value

* Armstrong, John 2003. “Moral depth and pictorial art” in Art and Morality Bermudez, José, and Sebastian Gardner, eds. London: Routledge. pp. 170-185.

Anderson, James C., and Jeffrey T. Dean. 1998. 'Moderate Autonomism', British Journal of Aesthetics, 38: 150-66.

*Carlson, Allen. 2008. Functional Beauty, with G. Parsons Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 196-235.

*Carroll, Noel. 1996. Moderate moralism. The British Journal of Aesthetics, 36, 223–238.
Carroll, Noel. 1998. Art, narrative, and moral understanding. In J. Levinson (Ed.), Aesthetics and ethics: Essays at the intersection New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 126–160)
Carroll, Noel. 1998. Moderate moralism versus moderate autonomism. The British Journal of Aesthetics, 38, 419–424.
*Carroll, Noël. 2000. “Art and Ethical Criticism”, Ethics, 110, 350-87. In Art in Three Dimensions Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Library BH39 .C375 2010, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Dammann-Shellekens, Elisabeth. 2007. Aesthetics and Morality. London, UK: Continuum. Chs. 2 and 4. Library BH39 .S34 2007, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Dickie, George. 1996. The Pleasures of Aesthetics. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP. Ch 2.
Dickie, George. 2001. Art and Value. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Chs. 5 and 6. Goldman, Alan. 1995. Aesthetic Value. Boulder, CO: Westview. Ch. 5. Library N66 .D53 2001, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Eaton, Anne. 2012. “Robust Immoralism” in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 70 (3):281-292
*Eaton Muelder, Marcia. 2001. Merit, Aesthetic and Ethical, Oxford University Press. Library E28 2001, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Eileen, John. 2006. Artistic Value and Opportunistic Moralism. Ch. 21 in Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art, ed. Matthew Kieran, 331-41. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Library BH201 .C652 2006, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Gaut, Berys 1998. 'The Ethical Criticism of Art', in J. Levinson, ed., Aesthetics and Ethics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 182-203.
Gaut, Berys. 2007. Art, Emotion and Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press,
*Gaut, Berys. 2005. “Art and Ethics”. In The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, 2nd ed., eds. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes, 431-43

Hegel, G.W.F. 1975. Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art T.M. Know (trans) Oxford: Clarendon Press.

*Kateb, George. 2000. “Aestheticism and Morality: Their Cooperation and Hostility” Political Theory 28 (1):5-37
Kieran, Matthew. 2002. “Forbidden Knowledge: The Challenge of Cognitive Immoralism” in S. Gardner and J. Bermudez (eds.), Art and Morality London: Routledge, , pp. 56–73.
*Kieran, Matthew. 2006 “Art, Morality and Ethics: On the (Im)Moral Character of Art Works and Inter‐Relations to Artistic Value” A Philosophy Compass 1(2):129 – 143.
*Kieran, Matthew. 2010 “Emotions, Art and Immorality” in P. Goldie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 681-704.
Knight, Helen 1936. The Use of "Good" in Aesthetic Judgments in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society New Series, Vol. 36, pp. 207-222
Levinson, Jerrod, ed., 1998. Aesthetics and Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
*Lillehammer, Hallvard. 2008. 'Values of Art and the Ethical Question', British Journal of Aesthetics, 48 (2008): 376-94.
Nehamas, Alexander. 1988. “Plato and the Mass Media” The Monist 71 (2):214-234
*Stecker, Robert. 2005. The Interaction of Ethical and Aesthetic Value', British Journal of

Aesthetics, 45: 138-50.
*Tanner Michael 2003. “Ethics and aesthetics are” in Art and Morality Bermudez, José, and Sebastian Gardner, eds. London: Routledge. pp. 19-37 and 95-111.
*Zemach, Eddy M. 1971. “Thirteen Ways of Looking at the Ethic-Aesthetics Parallelism”. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (3): 391-8

WEEK XI: Ethical value and originality, fakeness, and authenticity in art.
Berleant, Arnold. 2005.  “Morality and the Artist: toward an ethics of art.” in Aesthetics and Environment, Theme and Variations on Art and Culture. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp.220-240
*Irvin, Sherri. 2010. “Aesthetics as a Guide to Ethics” in Aesthetics Today: A Reader, ed. Robert Stecker and Theodore Gracyk. Rowman & Littlefield, 370-377
*Jacobson, Daniel. 1997. “In Praise of Immoral Art.” Philosophical Topics 25: 155-99.
*Goldie, Peter. 2007. “Towards Virtue Theory of Art.” in British Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. 47 , No.4, opp.372-387
Harries, Karsten. 1988. “The Ethical Significance of Modern Art” Design for Arts in Education, v.89 n.6 pp.2-12.
*Hughes, Robert. 1993. Moral in Itself: Art and the Therapeutic Fallacy” and Multi-Culti its Discontents” in The Culture of Complaint: The Fraying of America “Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Kidd, David C. Emanuele Castano. 2013. “Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind” in Science 342(6156)
Kieran, Matthew. 2003. “Forbidden Knowledge: The Challenge of Immoralism” In J. Luis Bermudez & Sebastian Gardner (eds.), Art and Morality. Routledge
*Kieran, Matthew. 2005. Art and Morality. In The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, ed. Jerrold Levinson, 451-70. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP. Library BH56 .O94 2003, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Korsgaard, Christine M. 1983. “Two Distinctions in Goodness.” The Philosophical Review 92 (2): 169-95.
*Lamarque, Peter. 1996. 'Tragedy and moral value” in Fictional Points of View Ithaca, NY:
Levınson, Jerrod, ed., 1998. Aesthetics and Ethics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Levinson, Jerrod. 1996. “Critical Notice: Art, Value and Philosophy”, Mind 105 (420): 667-82.
Murdoch, Iris. 1959. “The Sublime and the Good”, Chicago Review, 13:3 p.42-55
*Murdoch, Iris. 1970 The Sovereignty of Good over Other Concepts London: Routledge
Nussbaum, Martha C. 1990. Love’s Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP. Essays 1, 5, 9.
*Nussbaum, Martha C. 1995. “Fancy” in Poetic Justice: Literary Imagination and Public Life. Boston: Beacon Press. Library N87 1995, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Nussbaum, Martha C. 1997. Cultivating Humanity: a classical defense of reform in liberal education. Harvard University Press.
*Posner, Richer. (1997): “Against Ethical Criticism” Philosophy and Literature 21 (1):1-27
Savile, Anthony. 1982. “Understanding and order” in The Test of Time: An Essay in Philosophical Aesthetics Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph. 1989. The Philosophy of Art, Minnesota: Minnesota University Press,
*Schopenhauer, Arthur. 1968. “The World as Will and Representation” The World as Will and Representation, Volume I, translated by E.F.J. Payne New York: Harper & Row.
Sibley, Frank. 2001. Approach to Aesthetics: Collected Papers on Philosophical Aesthetics. Eds. Benson, Betty Redfern, and Jeremy Roxbee Cox. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chs. 7-10.
Walton, Kendall L. 1994. 'Morals in Fiction and Fictional Morality I', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Suppl. Vol., 68: 27-50. Reprinted in his Marvelous Images Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), ch.3.
Originality, fakeness, and authenticity in art.

*Benhamou, Francoise and Victor Ginsburgh 2006. “Copies of Artworks: The Case of Paintings and Prints” in Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, vol. 1, p. 309 Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.) Chicago: Chicago University Press.

*Boden, Margaret A. 1994. Dimensions of Creativity Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994, ch. 4 Library D55 1994, MİMARLIK FAK. KÜTÜPHANESİ
Dutton, Denis. 1979 'Artistic Crimes: The Problem of Forgery in the Arts ', British Journal of Aesthetics, 19: 302-14. Reprinted in A. Neill and A. Ridley, eds. Arguing about Art. 3rd ed. Abington, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 102-112.
Gaut, Berys. 2003. 'Creativity and Imagination', in B. Gaut and P. Livingston, eds., The Creation of Art Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 148-73. Also
*Gaut, Berys. 2010. 'The Philosophy of Creativity', Philosophy Compass, 5, no. 12:1034-46.
Kieran, Matthew. 2014"Creativity, Virtue and the Challenges from Natural Talent, Ill-Being and Immorality" in Philosophical Aesthetics and the Sciences of Art, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, vol. 75, Cambridge University Press, pp. 203 - 230.
Lessıng, Alfred. 1965. 'What Is Wrong with a Forgery?' Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 23: 461-72. Reprinted in A. Neill and A. Ridley, eds. Arguing about Art. 3rd ed. Abington, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 89-101.
Novitz, David. 1999. “Creativity and Constraint”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 77
*Sibley, Frank. 1985. 'Originality and Value', British Journal of Aesthetics, 25: 169-84.
Vermazen, Bruce, 'The Aesthetic Value of Originality', Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 16 (1991): 266-79.
Watch: The phantom of Liberty (screening outside of class)

WEEK XII: Art and Politics
*Adorno, Theodor. 1962. “Commitment: The Politics of Autonomous Art,” in New Left Review I 87-88 or in Aesthetics and Politics (Radical Thinkers), London & New York: Verso Publishing House.
*Adorno, Theodor. 1977. Aesthetics and Politics. Ed. Ronald Taylor. London: New Left Books.
*Benjamin, Walter. 1970. (1934) “The Author as Producer,” in New Left Review 1/62, July-August.
*Antliff, Mark. 2002. "Fascism, Modernism, and Modernity", The Art Bulletin, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 148-169.
*Ankersmit. F.R. 2002. “Representational Democracy: An Aesthetic Approach to Conflict and Compromise”, Common Knowledge 8.1, 24- 46.
Ankersmit. F.R. 1996. Political Representation: The Aesthetic State. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Abbas, Asma. 2010. Liberalism and Human Suffering: Materialist Reflections on Politics, Ethics, and Aesthetics Palgrave.
*Bolt, Rasmussen, M. 2009. “The Politics of Interventionist Art: The Situationist International, Artist Placement Group, and Art Workers’ Coalition” Rethinking Marxism 21.1: 34-49
Bourdieu. Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste R. Nice, Trans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
*Campbell, Mary Schmidt and Randy Martin edt. 2006. Artistic Citizenship: a Public Voice for the Arts. New York: Routledge.
*Camus, Albert. 1952. “Art and Revolt” in Partisan Review. Vol. 19, No:3
*Danto, Arthur. 2002. "The Abuse of Beauty" Daedalus Vol. 131, No. 4, in On Beauty, pp. 35-56
*Debord, Guy. 1995. The Society of the Spectacle, trans. by Donald Nicholson-Smith New York: Zone Books.
*Eagleton, Terry. 1990. The Ideology of the Aesthetic London: Blackwell.
Ferry, Luc. 1993. “The Revolution of Taste” in Homo Aestheticus: The Invention of Taste in the Democratic Age, transl. By Robert de Loaiza Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Felshin, Nina. 1994. But Is It Art? The Spirit of Art as Activism. Nina Bay Press.
Gentile, Emilio. 2003. The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism and Fascism. Westport Library DG568.5 .G46 2003, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Jay, Martin. 1992. “'The Aesthetic Ideology’ as Ideology: or, What Does it Mean to Aestheticize Politics?” Cultural Critique No. 21 (Spring), pp. 41-61
*Kateb, George. 2000. “Aestheticism and Morality: Their Cooperation and Hostility” in Political Theory Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 5-37
*Knight, Cher Krause. 2008. Public Art: Theory, Practice, and Populism. Wiley Press.
*Lefort, Claude. 1986. “The Image of the Body and Totalitarianism.” In The Political Forms of Modern Society: Bureaucracy, Democracy, Totalitarianism. Ed. John B. Thompson. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1986: 292-307
Marciniak & Katarzyna Marciniak & Imogen Tyler. 2014. Immigrant Protest: Politics, Aesthetics, and Everyday Dissent. State University of New York Press.
*Mülle, Hertha. 2013. Politics and Aesthetics. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press
Noyes, Susan. 1988. "Modernism, Formalism, and Politics: The "Cubism and Abstract Art" Exhibition of 1936", Art Journal, Vol. 47, No. 4, Revising Cubism, pp. 284-295
Rancière, Jacques. 2010. The Emancipated Spectator. Trans. Gregory Elliott. London: Verso.
*Rancière, Jacques. 2010. Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics. Edt. & trans. Steven Corcoran. London: Continuum
Rieff, Phillip 1953. “Aesthetic Functions in Modern Politics” in World Politics Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 478-502
*Scarry, Elaine 1999. On Beauty and Being Just. New York: Princeton University Press.
*Schechner, Richard 2006. “A Polity of Its Own Called Art? in Artistic Citizenship: A Public Voice for the Arts. New York: Routledge.
*Stam, Robert and Ella Shohat. 2006. “Patriotism, Fear, and Artistic Citizenship” in Artistic Citizenship: a Public Voice for the Arts New York: Routledge.
*Taylor, Charles. 2003. Modern Social Imaginaries. Duke University Press. Library H61.15 .T39 2004, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Walton, Kendall L. 2006. 'On the (So-Called) Puzzle of Imaginative Resistance', in S. Nichols, ed., The Architecture of the Imagination Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 137-48
*Wolff, Janet. 1993. “Art as an Ideology” in Aesthetics and the Sociology of Art George Allen & Unwin Press.
Watch: Triumph of the Will (screening outside of class)
*Devereaux, Mery 1998. “Beauty and Evil: Reifenstahl’s Triumph of the Will in Aesthetics and Ethics. Jerrold Levinson (ed.), Cambridge University Press. pp. 227--256

WEEK XIII: Art and Politics, and Freedom of expression
*Adorno, Theodor W. and Max Horkheimer. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Gunzelin Schmid Noerr (edt) and Edmund Jephcott (trans). Stanford: Stanford University Press. CH. “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception”. In The Consumer”
Bell-Villada, Gene H. 1996. Art for art's sake & literary life: how politics and markets helped shape the ideology & culture of aestheticism, 1790-1990. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press
*Benjamin, Walter, 2008. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media Cambridge, Mass. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
*Benjamin, Walter 1969. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction in Illuminations: Essays and Reflections. Ed. Hannah Arendt. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books.
*Berleant, Arnold. 2010.” The Aesthetics of Politics.” In Sensibility and Sense: The Aesthetic Transformation of the Human. World Imprint Academic. Pp.
*Bourdieu, Pierre. 1991. “On Symbolic Power.” In Language and Symbolic Power, pp. 163-170. New York: Polity Press.
Bleiker, Ronald. 2009. Aesthetics and World Politics. Palgrave Macmillan
Bourdieu. Pierre 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste R. Nice, Trans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Introduction (pp 1-7), Ch. 1 (esp. pp. 28-63); Ch. 4 section on “Symbolic Struggles” (pp. 244-256); Ch. 7 (372-396).
Budd, Malcolm. 1993. “How Pictures Look.” In Virtue and Taste, eds. Dudley Knowles and John Skorupski, 154-75. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
*Carroll, Noël.1997. “The Ontology of Mass Art” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 55, No. 2, Perspectives on the Arts and Technology pp. 187-199
Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality, vol. 1, Robert Hurley (trans.), New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. 1981. ‘The Order of Discourse’, in Untying the Text: A Poststructuralist Reader, Robert Young (trans.) Boston / London / Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Foucault, Michel. 1995. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Alan Sheridan (trans.) New York: Vintage Books.
Foucault, Michel. 2003. Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–76, David Macey (trans), Mauro Bertani and Alessandro Fontana (edt..) London: Allen Lane.
*Foucault, Michel. 2011. The Courage of Truth (the Government of Self and Others II): Lectures at the Collège De France, 1983-1984, Frédéric Gros (edt.), Graham Burchell (trans.) Basingstoke/ New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Library B2430.F723 C68 2011, MİMARLIK FAK. KÜTÜPHANESİ
*Freud, Sigmund. 1927. “Fetishism.” Miscellaneous Papers, 1888-1938. Vol. 5 of Collected Papers. 5 vols. London: Hogarth and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1924-1950.
Hagelstein Marquardt, Virginia. 1993. "Art on the Political Front in America: From The Liberator to Art Front in Art Journal, Vol. 52, No. 1, Political Journals and Art, 1910-40., pp. 72-81.
Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, Mads Rosendahl Thomsen and Jacob Wamberg. 2012. The Posthuman Condition Ethics, Aesthetics and Politics of Biotechnological Challenges. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.
Lopes, Dominic. 1996. Understanding Pictures. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
*Marx, Karl. 1982. Capital Vol. I “Section “The Fetishism of the Commodity and its Secret.” pp. London: Penguin Press. 125-178.
Sholette, Gregory. 2011. Dark Matter: Art and Politics in the Age of Enterprise Culture, Pluto Press.
Swidler, Ann. 1986. “Culture in Action.: Symbols and Strategies” American Sociological Review, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 273-286
Skowroński Krzysztof P. 2013. Beyond aesthetıcs and Polıtıcs: Philosophical and Axiological Studies on the Avant-Garde, Pragmatism, and Postmodernism. New York: Rodopi
Tierney, Matt 2015. What Lies Between Void Aesthetics and Postwar Post-Politics. London: Rowman & Littlefield International
*Wedeen, Lisa. 1999. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Ch. 1 & 3.
Wollheim, Richard. 1998. “On Pictorial Representation” in. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56: 217-26.

WEEK XIV: Art, Freedom of expression and Silencing
*Burt, Richard. The Administration of Aesthetics: Censorship, Political Criticism, and the Public Sphere. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
*Cohen, Gerald 2002. “A Deeper into Bullshit,” in Buss and Overton, eds., Contours of Agency: Themes from the Philosophy of Harry Frankfurt Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press
*Devereaux, M. 1993. “Protected space, politics, censorship and the arts” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 51 (2), 207-221.
*Elkins, Jeremy. 2012 “Concerning Practices of Truth,” in Truth and Democracy Jeremy Elkins and Andrew (eds.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Elkins, Jeremy and Andrew Norris. 2012. “Truth and Democracy,” in Truth and Democracy Jeremy Elkins and Andrew (edts.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
*Frankfurt, Harry. 1988. “On Bullshit,” in The Importance of What We Care About. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Library F73 1988, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
Hardcastle, Gary L. 2006. “The Unity of Bullshit,” in G. Reisch & G. Hardcastle (eds.), Popular Culture and Philosophy Chicago: Open Court,
*Heyman, Steven J. 2008. Free Speech and Human Dignity, New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Library Ebook
Hughes, Robert. 1992. "Art, Morals, and Politics." New York Review of Books 23 April: 21-27.
*Langton, Rae 2009. Sexual Solipsism: Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Longino, Helen. 1980. "Pornography, Oppression, and Freedom: A Closer Look." In Take Back the Night: Women on Pornography. Ed. Laura Lederer. New York: William Morrow.
*Maitra, Ishani, and McGowan, Mary Kate, eds. 2012. Speech and Harm: Controversies over Free Speech. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Library JC591.S6 2012
McLeod. Kembrew. 2007. Freedom of Expression: Resistance and Repression in the Age of *Intellectual Property. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press.
Mill, John Stuart. 1997. On Liberty and Other Writings, Stefan Collini, (edt.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
*Navasky, Victor S. 2013. The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and their Enduring Power. New York: Knopf.
*Nietzsche, F. 2015. On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.
*Posner, Richard and Tunjen Chiang 2006. “Censorship versus Freedom of Expression in the Arts,” in Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture , vol. 1, p. 309 Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.) Chicago: Chicago University Press
*Saul, Mather Jennifer 2012. “Is Lying Worse Than Merely Misleading?” in Lying, Mislead-ing, and What Is Said Jennifer Mather Saul (edt) Oxford: Oxford University Press. 69-86.

*Scanlon, Thomas. 1972. “A Theory of Freedom of Expression” Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 2.

Shiffrin, Seana Valentine. 2016. “Lying and Freedom of Speech,” in Speech Matters: On Lying, Morality, and the Law. Seana Valentine Shiffrin (edt) Princeton: Princeton University Press.
*Young, Caleb. 2011. “Does Freedom of Speech Include Hate Speech?” in Volume 17, Number 4, 385-403.
*Waldron, Jeremy. 2012. The Harm in Hate Speech Harvard: Harvard University Press. Library KF9345 .W35 2012, Mustafa İnan Kütüphanesi
*Wicclair. Mark R 1987. Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship,” in Social Ethics Thomas A. Mappes and Jane S. Zembaty, (eds.) New York: McGraw-Hill
Zerilli, Linda. 2012. “Truth and Politics” in Truth and Democracy Jeremy Elkins and Andrew (eds.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
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