Originally calculations were computed by humans, whose job title was computers.
These human computers were typically engaged in the calculation of a mathematical expression.
The calculations of this period were specialized and expensive, requiring years of training in mathematics.
The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century.
A tally stick was an ancient memory aid device to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.
An abacus is a mechanical device used to aid an individual in performing mathematical calculations.
The abacus was invented in Babylonia in 2400 B.C.
The abacus in the form we are most familiar with was first used in China in around 500 B.C.
Earlier Abacus Modern Abacus
THE BEAD ABACUS
The bead frame form is what most people think of when they hear the word, "abacus". There are 3 main forms of abacus in use today; the Chinese, the Japanese, and the Russian. All are composed of a rectangular frame with beads on vertical wires. The number of wires and beads vary, and there may or may not be a horizontal divider in the frame.
Characteristics of abacus
It is constructed as a board that consists of beads that slide on wire.It uses beads as counter to calculate in discrete form
it is divided by a wooden bar or rod into two zones
It has a beans or stones moved in grooves in tablets of wood or metal
It is divided by a wooden bar or rod into two zone
It is used to perform arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction efficiently.
Invented by John Napier in 1614.
Allowed the operator to multiply, divide and calculate square and cube roots by moving the rods around and placing them in specially constructed boards.
Invented by William Oughtred in 1622.
It was based on Napier's ideas about logarithms. Used primarily for multiplication and division, and also for "scientific" functions such as roots, logarithms and trigonometry, but is not normally used for addition or subtraction
Invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642.
It was its limitation to addition and subtraction.
It is too expensive.
The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard in 1881.
The first programmable computer. Created by Konrad Zuse in Germany from 1936 to 1938.To program the Z1 required that the user insert punch tape into a punch tape reader and all output was also generated through punch tape.
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)
It was the first electronic digital computing device.
Invented by Professor John Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry at Iowa State University between 1939 and 1942.
Prof.John Atanasoff-Berry Computer
ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
It was the first electronic general purpose computer.