(fl mid-16th century). Spanish priest and music theorist. He published an Intonario general para todas las iglesias de España (Zaragoza, 1548), which, he assured the reader, he wrote bearing in mind the revision of the missal ordered by Don Fernando of Aragon, Archbishop of Zaragoza, as well as the reforms carried out in other dioceses and the opinions of qualified people. In the introduction he referred to the archbishop's wish to rid chant of the various abuses that had been committed, and he lamented the lack of unity of style in the playing and singing of church music. He established interesting norms in notation, in plainchant allowing the following note forms: the oblique ligature, various other ligatures, the long, the brevis and the semibrevis. In the case of the first four, he insisted that he was merely stating what already existed; semibreves he admitted as melodic ornaments, though with a different function in certain hymns. The Intonario is a valuable liturgical collection and achieved widespread dissemination throughout Spain. His work is discussed further in F.J. León Tello: Estudios de historia de la teoría musical (Madrid, 1962/R).
F.J. LEÓN TELLO
(b Cervera del Maestre, Castellón, 10 Aug 1762; d El Escorial, 21 Aug 1824). Spanish composer. He was a pupil of Antonio Soler, who on 15 February 1779 sponsored his entry into the Hieronymite order of S Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial and whom he succeeded as director of the chapel there, a post he held for 36 years. Many of Soler’s works survive in copies by Ferrer (E-E). His own numerous compositions (in E-E) include masses, Lamentations, lessons for the dead, litanies, vespers, responsories, hymns, psalms, sequences and 62 villancicos for the Nativity. The villancico Soy pastorcilla, for solo soprano, two violins and continuo, demonstrates Ferrer’s fluent adoption of the Italianate style, especially in its opening siciliana. Texts for several of his Matins settings were printed by the monastery between 1798 and 1817, a step apparently taken for no other Escorial villancico composer.
H.Anglès: Preface to A. Soler: Sis quintets per a instruments d’arc i orgue ó clave obligat, ed. R. Gerhard (Barcelona, 1933)
P.Capdepón: ‘El villancico escurialense del siglo XVIII’, La música en el monasterio del Escorial: San Lorenzo de El Escorial 1992, 235–65
P.R. Laird: Towards a History of the Spanish Villancico (Warren, MI, 1997), 143–6
PAUL R. LAIRD
(b Turin, 17 Nov 1951). Italian composer. He was initially self-taught as a musician, but went on to study with Massimo Bruni and Enore Zaffiri. He became interested in new technology for sound production and in the 1970s worked at the experimental studio for electronic music in Bourges (1972–3) and the Musik-Dia-Licht-Film Galerie in Munich. In 1974 he graduated from Turin University with a thesis on Cage. Since 1980 he has been artistic director of numerous Italian institutions such as the Puccini Festival at Torre del Lago (1980–84), the Unione Musicale in Turin (1983–7) and the Verona Arena (1991–4). He made his debut as a composer in the mid-1970s with works including Ellipse III (1974), Sieglied (1975) and Le néant où l'on ne peut arriver (1975) in which there are already signs of revolt against the severe sound of the avant-garde idiom. Subsequently this tendency took over as his main musical direction. With the opera Marilyn (1980) he found in the fundamentally composite form of music theatre an ideal setting for his eclectic, post-modern artistic view. Ferrero, together with his contemporary Tutino and others embodied the so-called neo-romantic movement in Italy, which throughout the 1980s stood in opposition to the musical avantgarde. After Marilyn, his approach was characterized by the juxtaposition of different genres and idioms, the contamination of the traditional forms of art music by popular music, and a play of theatrical and musical conventions from the past. Eclecticism, neo-tonal language and stylistic variability, aimed at restoring the communication with the audience which, according to the neo-romantics, modern art had destroyed, set the course of his subsequent work. These trends have dominated his operatic music, and can be seen in the anti-modernist satire of his comic opera Mare nostro (1985) and through subsequent works including Nascita di Orfeo (1996). The casual use of the past and a modernized version of it is to be found in numerous instrumental and vocal works, such as Canzoni d'amore (1985), on texts by Metastasio, reworked and de-archaicized by Marco Ravasini, or in the Beethovenian Adagio cantabile of 1977 (based on the Piano Sonata, op.13). On the other hand, an extensive group of works such as My Blues (1982), My Rag (1983), My Rock (1985) and Parodia (1990) directly demonstrate his absorption of rock and non-art music styles.
Invito a nozze (ballet), Florence, 28 June 1978; Rimbaud, ou Le fils du soleil (quasi un melodramma, 3, L.-F. Claude), Avignon, Festival Theatre, 24 July 1978; Marilyn (sceni degli anni '50, 2, F. Bossi and Ferrero), Rome, Opera, 23 Feb 1980; La figlia del mago (giocodramma melodioso, 2, M. Ravasini), Montepulciano, Poliziano, 31 July 1981; Mare nostro (ob, 2, Ravasini), Alessandria, Comunale, 11 Sept 1985; Night (op, 1, Ferrero and P. Wehrahn after Novalis: Hymnen an die Nacht), Munich, Marstall, 8 Nov 1985; Salvatore Giuliano (op, 1, G. Di Leva), Rome, Opera, 25 Jan 1986; Charlotte Corday (op, 3, Di Leva), Rome, Opera, 21 Feb 1989; Le bleu-blanc-rouge et le noir (opera per marionette, J.P. Carasso, after A. Burgess), Paris, Festival d'Automne, 15 Nov 1989; La nascita di Orfeo (azione, 1, Ferrero, Euripides and Simonides), Verona, Filarmonico, 19 April 1996
Orch: Ellipse IV (Waldmusik), 21 wind insts, 1974; Sieglied, chbr orch, 1975; My Blues, str, 1982; My Rock, big band, 1985; Zaubermarsch, 1990; Pf Conc., 1991; La nueva España, 1992–5; Paesaggio con figura, 1994; Three Baroque Buildings, concertino, tpt, bn, str, 1997
Vocal: Ellipse III, 4 vv, insts, 1974; Le néant où l'on ne peut arriver (B. Pascal), solo vv, 2 choruses, Tr chorus, 7 brass, 7 perc, 1975; Marilyn Suite, S, T, orch, 1981; Canzoni d’amore (Ravasini, Ferrero, after P. Metastasio), 1v, 9 insts, 1985; Non parto, non resto (Metastasio), chorus, 1987; Introito, chorus, orch, 1993