Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83



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2. Classification.


An indiscriminate classification of the cante as hondo or flamenco neglects the fact that cante hondo constitutes a major flamenco category. Nonetheless, two basic divisions of cante flamenco appear to have gained wide currency: the first, twofold, with cante grande comprising songs of the hondo type, and cante chico the remainder; and the second, threefold, with the category cante intermedio inserted between grande and chico. While there is wide disagreement as to which cante belong to the intermedio, the hondo and chico categories represent the most and the least difficult cante respectively in terms of their technical and emotional interpretation. Moreover, various cantes have achieved prominence by their links with individual singers (e.g. soleá Tomás Pavon, siguiriya El Manolito) or by their stylistic amalgamation with other cante (chuflas por (‘sung in the manner of ’) bulerías, fandanguillos por soleares, saeta por siguiriya etc.). In more recent studies, the chico category has been further enlarged to include popular flamenco (flamenco árabe, flamenco pop and nuevas canciones andaluzas), which takes into account current commercial repertories at theatres and night clubs (explained in greater detail by Manuel, 1989).

Table 1, comprising a selection of 44 cante, represents songs of the ‘classical’ flamenco repertory together with songs which have enjoyed a peripheral association, although many no longer exist. If the table were extended to encompass cante from the many subdivisions, it would exceed 300 items and variant forms. While the derivations of numerous cante have been firmly established, the identity of musical precursors for the remainder, as well as related forms, has been problematic. In some cases two or more derivations have been suggested for particular cantes. The caña, fandango, polo, soleá and toná constitute the most basic songs in the flamenco hierarchy. Such cante as the mariana, murciana, palmares, policaña, roás, rosa, temporera and tirana were once prominent but now either no longer exist or are in the process of extinction. The songs grouped under the generic name cantiñas comprise those with a smaller number of coplas.



TABLE 1













1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20






1

Alegría




37

























































2

Bulería




37


























































3

Cabal




var. of 36































































4

Calesera (afl)




34































































Cantes de Levante




11

(includes nos. 8, 15, 19, 23, 31 and 40)












Cantiñas







(includes 1, 2, 6, 24 and 30)









5

Caña




Uncertain

?























































6

Caracoles




*

























































7

Carcelera




42




























































8

Cartagenera




11



























































9

Colombiana (afl)




38


























































10

Debla




42


























































11

Fandango
































































12

Fandanguillo































































13

Farruca (afl)




38 (de Cádiz)


























































14

Garrotín (afl)




13

















































?






15

Granadina or granaína




11



























































16

Guajira (afl)




38

























































17

Jabera




11




























































18

Jaleo

































































19

Liviana




42






































?









?






20

Malagueña




11



























































21

Martinete




42



























































22

Milonga (afl)




38



























































23

Minera




11




























































24

Mirabrás




37


























































25

Nana (afl)

































































26

Petenera (afl)




**


























































27

Playera




Identical to 36





























































28

Polo































































29

Romances (corridas)



































































30

Romera




37

























































31

Rondeña




11


























































32

Rumba































































33

Saeta




42



























































34

Serrana (afl)




36






























































35

Sevillana (afl)




Seguidilla manchega


























































36

Siguiriya
































































37

Soleá (pl. soleares)
































































38

Tango
































































39

Tanguillo





































































40

Taranta




11


























































41

Tiento




38



























































42

Toná




29



























































43

Trillera (afl)




37



























































44

Verdiales




11






































































*Its creation attributed to Tío José el Granaíno







**Its creation attributed to La Petenera, born in Peterna de Rivera (Cádiz)







afl = aflamencada (‘gypsified’)







? = uncertain














































key




1.

Derived from or simlar to







8.

Celtic influence







15.

Accompanied by guitar










2.

From the liturgical tradition







9.

Hondo or Grande







16.

(a palo seco) Unaccompanied










3.

From the folkloric tradition

Cante




10.

Intermedio







17.

Grande










4.

Andalusian origin







11.

Chico

Toque







18.




Intermedio







5.

Andulusian gypsy origin







12.

Grande







19.

Chico













6.

Hispano-American origin

Baile




13.

Intermedio







20.

Fell into disuse













7.

Arabic influence







14.

Chico



















The earlier inclusion of the alboreá (or alboleá), a Gypsy wedding song, is questionable as is the case of the extremely popular Gypsy songs cachuca, mosca and panadero. Songs and dances which have been associated with the repertory include the bambera, bolera, camparsa, cantes de trilla (work songs), chufla, danza mora, macho, media granaína, medio polo (hondo type), olé (hondo type), panadero, rociera, seguidilla gitana (=siguiriya), soleariya, taranto(= taranta de Almería and other localities), vidalita, villancico, vito, zambra and zorongo.

The cantes aflamencadas of Hispanic American origin, mainly associated with dancing, include danzón flamenca, habanera flamenca, punto de La Habana, rumba flamenca, tango cubano and vidalita flamenca. Additional cantes religiosas aflamencadas include the campanillero and villancico (mainly those sung for Christmas), whereas examples of cantes folklóricos aflamencadas (of Andalusian origin) comprise the unaccompanied nana (lullaby), temporera (work song) and pajarona (work song), as well as the sevillana (a species of the seguidilla castellana) which accompanied the dance. While the relationship of cante flamenco to Gypsy traditions has been more thoroughly investigated than the Arab and Celtic, the two principal streams from which the cante developed were the liturgical and the secular.



The predominant textual unit for the cante is the aforementioned copla, which varies according to the number of lines and syllable count. The popular octosyllabic and hexasyllabic quatrain structures, with second and fourth lines rhyming in assonance, point to the romance (‘traditional ballad’) as a significant antecedent. Also popular is the seguidilla strophe, with alternating hepta- and pentasyllabic lines.

Flamenco


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