The 32', 16', 8', and 4' flue ranks in French organ terminology; the actual tonal implications reflect the stoplists typical of each period (seeRegistration, §I, 5). Gigault’s ‘fonds d’orgues’ registration (Livre demusique pour l’orgue, 1685) was an expansion of the ‘Concert de flûtes’ and implied the Positif coupled to the Grand orgue; this definition was based on the era’s flute-like Principal tone which remained the norm well into the 19th century: Bédos de Celles (L’art du facteur d’orgues, 1766–78) concurred with this conception. By extension, Fond d’orgue designated a compositional style, a slow piece of rather vocal character. A sparser musical texture toward the end of the 18th century ultimately offset the gradual enrichening of the stoplists with Bourdons, 4' flutes and additional treble-only ranks. As flue pipework became more diversified in timbre and intensity throughout the 19th century, the ‘fonds’ – henceforth conceived as a plural term – took on an orchestral character, allowing and indeed encouraging great subtlety in registrational colour. Between 20% and 60% of a late 19th-century French organ – depending on its overall size – would consist of varied 8' Foundation stops. The composers of Franck’s era further understood the term ‘les fonds’ or ‘jeux de fonds’ as the flue portion of each division, as opposed to the reeds and upperwork placed on a separate pallet box with a pedal-operated wind cut-off (‘anches’ or ‘jeux de combinaison’). Although postwar French organ specifications somewhat curtailed unison flue ranks, composers of Messiaen’s generation continued to use ‘fonds’ in the same generic way.
Fongaard, Bjørn (Einar)
(b Oslo, 2 March 1919; d 26 Oct 1980). Norwegian composer and musician. He studied harmony and the piano with Kristian Lange, and in 1945 studied both the piano and the guitar at the Oslo Conservatory. He worked as a guitarist, and as a teacher of guitar at the conservatory (1945–9, 1956–73), continuing to teach there after its reorganization as the Norges Musikkhøgskole (1973–6). In the early 1950s his composition studies were with Brustad, with whom he particularly studied polytonality; at the same time he took lessons in 12-note technique from Karl Andersen.
His is a very large output, the most significant compositions of which are all based on specially defined scale systems. From his studies of Hindemith’s technique he developed new possibilities through his use of central pitches within his own constructed scales. His 12 Piano Sonatinas from 1953 already show his interest in single-pitch through to six-pitch systems. From 1960 he devoted himself to working with microtonal structures, developing his own composition technique and modifying instruments for the performance of his microtonal works. The symphonic poem Uran 235 is built on microtonal scales taken from the upper part of the overtone series (from the 16th partial), combined with a free, unmeasured notation of rhythm. The absence of traditionally tempered scales and a regular pulse imbues the music with a floating quality; this demanding piece waited 33 years for its first performance in 1999. In discovering electronic music he refined and developed his ideas further from 1975.
Orch: Sinfonietta, 1951; Kosmos, sym. poem, 1964; Uran 235, sym. poem, 1966; The Space Conc., pf, orch, tape, 1971; Tellus, pf conc., 1977; Circum Polare, pf conc., 1977
12 syms., several other pf concs. and sym. poems; 18 wind concs., 7 vn concs., 5 org concs.
Chbr and solo inst: 12 Piano Sonatinas, 1953; Abstraction, 12 vn, 8 va, 4 vc, 2 db, 1963; 21 str qts; 12 str trios; 9 sonatas, vn/vc; 9 wind qnts, 40 pf sonatas; 57 solo sonatas; 18 org syms.
S.Schneider: Mikrotöne in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts (Bonn, 1975)
Fonghetto [Funghetto, Fonghetti, Fongheto], Paolo [Paolo Luca]
(b Verona, c1572, bap. 19 Oct 1572; d after 1628, before June, 1630). Italian composer. He trained for the priesthood at the Scuola degli Accoliti of Verona Cathedral, where he also received his musical education from, among others, Ippolito Baccusi. He was ordained early in 1596 and later became one of the resident priests of the Mensa Cornelia. In 1610 and probably thereafter he taught singing to members of the Scuola degli Accoliti and to private pupils. His name is last mentioned in household records in 1629. He was the first Veronese composer to publish instrumental and vocal works with basso continuo; his two-part instrumental capriccios are early examples of the type. His 1595 publication, the contents of which he described in the dedication as ‘praecoces fructus’, includes a mass clearly designed for provincial use, since it may be performed by three voices as written, by three voices with bass part transferred to the top part, or by two voices without the bass.