(bPennsylvania, 6 April 1778; d Singers Glen, VA, 24 Dec 1862). American composer and tune book compiler. A Mennonite, he compiled for the German-speaking denominations of the Shenandoah Valley Die allgemein nützliche Choral-Music (Harrisonburg, VA, 1816), a shape-note tune book that contained chiefly chorales but also included four folk-hymn tunes taken from Davisson’s Kentucky Harmony (1816). In 1832 he published in Winchester, Virginia, A Compilation of Genuine Church Music, a book of mostly Anglo-American tunes, which had reached ten editions by 1860. By the fifth edition (1851) the title had become Harmonia sacra, being a Compilation of Genuine Church Music, and its notation had changed from four- to seven-shape. A 25th edition, The New Harmonia sacra: a Compilation of Genuine Church Music (1993), is still in use among Mennonites of the Shenandoah Valley. Funk’s other shape-note publications include A Map or General Scale of Music (published in Mountain Valley [now Singer’s Glen], printed in Philadelphia, 1847) and a monthly periodical, the Southern Musical Advocate and Singer’s Friend (July 1859–April 1861). His grandson Aldine S. Kieffer was a leading publisher of shape-note tune books in the Shenandoah Valley after the Civil War. Alice Parker’s opera Singers Glen (1978) is based on Funk’s life.
See alsoAmish and Mennonite music and Shape-note hymnody, §2.
I.B.Horst: ‘Joseph Funk, Early Mennonite Printer and Publisher’, Mennonite Quarterly Review, xxxi (1957), 260–80
H.Eskew: ‘Joseph Funk’s Allgemein nützliche Choral-Music (1816)’, Report of the Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland, xxxii (1966), 38–46
H.L.Eskew: Shape-Note Hymnody in the Shenandoah Valley, 1816–1860 (diss., Tulane U., 1966)
American funk-rock group led by George Clinton.
Funky jazz [funk].
Furchheim [Forcheim, Forchheim], Johann Wilhelm
(b ?1635–40; d Dresden, 22 Nov 1682). German composer, violinist and organist. He spent his life at the Saxon electoral Hofkapelle at Dresden. He is first heard of there as a boy in 1651, when he was being trained as an instrumentalist. He was a violinist there from 1665, and from 1667 to 1676 he directed the church music and Tafelmusik. In 1680 he became Konzertmeister and in 1681 vice-Kapellmeister. From time to time he also acted as court organist. A more famous violinist, J.J. Walther, was one of his colleagues from 1674 to 1681. An earlier colleague was Adam Krieger, whose posthumous Neue Arien (1667) he helped to edit; he also composed ritornellos for the ten songs added to the second edition (1676). In his E minor sonata for two violins and basso continuo the instruments have finely spun lines and sometimes play together, sometimes singly. The other four manuscript sonatas, for five to seven instruments, anticipate aspects of the 18th-century sonata; in the six- and seven-part ones the violins form a self-contained group. These works have a well-defined melodic structure and expressive harmony. Furchheim's church music is widely recorded in inventories of about 1700, but only a single work is now known to be extant.