Features of phraseological units in english and issues of their translation

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Phraseological unities are much more numerous .They are partially non- motivated word-groups because their meaning can be usually guessed from the meaning of its components through the metaphorical meaning of the whole phraseological unit . For instance : to stick ( to stand ) to one’s guns – to refuse to change one’s statements or opinions in the face of opposition , implying courage and integrity ; A hard nut to crack – a person or thing that is difficult to understand or influence .
Phraseological fusions are completely non -motivated word-groups .The meaning of the whole in phraseological fusions cannot be understood at least synchronically from the meaning of the words that constitutes the fusion . They are unique and specific in every language and do not lend themselves to literal translation into other languages and always require using a dictionary. We may give the following phraseological fusions as examples ; A red tape - bureaucratic methods ; a heavy father - serious or solemn part in a theatrical play ; to kick the bucket – to die ; tit for tat – to talk about something face to face
Phraseological combinations are partially motivated word –groups since their meaning can be easily deduced from the components of phraseological collocations by literal translation . They contain one component used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively : break a rule ,break a law , break a promise . In this group of phraseological units some substitutions are possible which do not destroy the meaning of metaphoric element .In these expressions the words : rule , law ,promise are used in their direct meanings ,while the meaning of the verb break is kept intact and used metaphorically , i.e. partially motivated to: come to power ;to make it a rule ;to take one’s seat ;to attain success ;to meet the requirements.[4]
In conclusion , Phraseology is a complex phenomenon that requires special attention of translators , since phraseological units are not simple phrases with free meanings of components , and when translating them , one may encounter a number of difficulties. Using phraseological units in our oral or written speech colors our thoughts ,ideas and opinions and also reflects the nation cultural linguistic features.
1А,В,Бондар.Особенности перевода фразеологических единиц с английского языка на русский . воронежский государственний университет
2.Victoria Subbotina (2012) Akdeniz Language Studies Conference. Challenges of translating phraseological units .Procedia –social and Behavioral Sciences 70 (2013) 1487 -1492.
4.Abdurasulov. N.N. The classification of the phraseological units. Middle European Scientific Bulletin.2021.
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