Jet lag is a physical reaction to a rapid change in time zones. It affects most travelers, including seasoned fliers like flight attendants and pilots. Common symptoms include disorientation, irritability, insomnia, fatigue, dry eyes, headaches, irregular bowels and general malaise.
It doesn't help that long-haul flying is so debilitating. Dehydration, unfamiliar foods, cramped spaces, recycled air, lack of sleep, uncomfortable clothes, continual low-level noise and connections that disrupt sleep all add to the misery of jet lag, and can even make you feel jet lagged when you're just a little beat up.
Flying from, say, New York City to Santiago won't produce jet lag in the true sense because both cities are in the same time zone -- but the effects of the long flight might feel quite a bit like classic jet lag. In these cases, you're just tired from the flight, and a good night's sleep and perhaps some exercise will set things right.
On long flights -- especially red-eye flights -- you can lose several hours of sleep time, which can set you back considerably even without the jarring time change. If you live by a regular schedule (up at 7 a.m., in bed by 10 p.m. every night), watch out. Jet lag hits those with rigid body clocks the hardest. For parents, be sure to bring along books and toys your child can play with on his or her own, in case the jet lag hits you differently than it does your little ones.
A general rule of thumb to keep in mind before any long trip is the 1:1 ratio: allow yourself one day to recover for every hour of time difference that you experience. Some people find that they recover from jet lag more easily when traveling east instead of west (or vice versa).
Before You Go
Treat your body well before you fly. Exercise, sleep well, stay hydrated and stay sober. The worst thing you can do is get on a long flight with a hangover.
Some travelers like to exercise before they go to the airport. (This can actually help you sleep better on the plane.) Once you're at the airport, avoid the escalators and moving sidewalks. Instead, walk and take the stairs on the way to your check-in area and gate connections.
Adjust your habits before you leave. If you are traveling from the East to the West Coast of the U.S., you're facing a three-hour time change and you should try to adjust your internal clock. A few days before you leave, start to stay up a little later than usual, and sleep in a little longer. That way, if you become accustomed to falling asleep at 1 a.m. and waking up at 9 a.m. on the East Coast, it will be the same as falling asleep at 10 p.m. and waking up at 6 a.m. on the West Coast. Traveling west to east, do the opposite: get up and go to bed earlier.
Wearing two watches, one set to the current time, and one to the time at your destination, can help you prepare yourself mentally for the coming time change. Many business travelers also use this tactic to stay in touch with what's happening back at the office.
During the Flight
Perhaps the most effective way to combat jet lag while in flight is to treat your body well. Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated fluids. Don't be afraid to ask your flight attendant for extra water.
Get up out of your seat at regular intervals to walk and stretch. You can also do exercises like toe raises, isometric exercises, stomach crunches and shoulder shrugs right in your seat. This keeps your blood flowing and prevents it from pooling at your extremities, a common phenomenon in pressurized cabins.
Other tips: Get up to wash your face, brush your teeth or just stand for several minutes. Wear loose-fitting clothing that breathes. Bring a neck pillow, eye mask, ear plugs or noise-canceling headphones -- these can be invaluable on red-eye flights. Also, avoid any snug footwear (high heels or wingtips); it is quite possible that your feet will swell in transit, making your post-flight trek to baggage claim a nightmare.
Medications and Vitamins
Melatonin is a chemical in the body that helps regulate sleep cycles. It can be taken in pill form, and many travelers swear by it for fighting jet lag. However, as popular as melatonin is, it's also controversial. Studies have indicated that incorrect melatonin usage can make you feel even more fatigued, so be sure to read all instructions and consult your physician before taking the product.
One widely available homeopathic remedy is the aptly named No-Jet-Lag. The company claims the chewable tablets address all jet lag symptoms, and offers testimonials from flight attendants and other frequent fliers. A bag of dried cherries is another natural remedy that some travelers use, as these are a good source of melatonin.
Some travelers use sleeping pills, antihistamines and motion sickness pills to induce sleep on planes and at hotels after arrival. While they work for some, others are left feeling miserably groggy. Consult your doctor before taking any medication.
If all else fails, try an alternate therapy. Light therapy has become a popular treatment for jet lag. At its heart, jet lag means you're out of step with the rising and setting of the sun, so exposing yourself to light at the appropriate time can theoretically help you align your body with your new time zone. Unfortunately, the jury's still out on the effectiveness of this. The debate centers on precisely which kind of light is best -- natural, artificial, bright or dim. Some researchers and enthusiasts recommend simply spending 15 to 20 minutes in direct sunlight without sunglasses as soon as possible after landing.
Jet Lag Apps
Several smartphone apps have been developed to help travelers fight jet lag. Enter your flight details into Jet Lag Rooster or Entrain, and they'll create a suggested schedule of when to sleep, eat and/or take melatonin to prepare for the time change. Both apps are available for iPhone and Android.
The so-called "jet lag diet," an alternation of feasting and fasting for three days leading up to a long-haul flight, was very popular a few years back. The military tested the diet and concluded, basically, that it is bunk. Nonetheless, Ronald and Nancy Reagan used it during their White House days, and some travelers still do.
Restrict your diet to foods that are easily digested, like those that are relatively high in fiber but not too rich. If you're trying to stay awake in order to get your body in step with the local time zone, caffeine can be useful -- but don't go overboard. While it might seem tempting to guzzle several cups of coffee when your eyelids begin to droop, you could end up wide awake at 1 a.m. Be sure to implement all dietary changes in moderation.