Living in the world designed by Science & Technology rather than in a realm of politics, finances, ideologies and various ’-isms’



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tarix25.07.2018
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Living in the world designed by Science & Technology rather than in a realm of politics, finances, ideologies and various ’-isms’

  • Living in the world designed by Science & Technology rather than in a realm of politics, finances, ideologies and various ’-isms’

  • As engine, discovery of electron and industrial electrical power, for instance, have shaped our being of today, current and future discoveries of new materials’ properties, superconductors, quantum technologies and many other researches have been creating another technological reality which would exceed any imaginable today’s level of technology and applications

  • It is NOT economy that drives innovations

  • What is a driver?



Soviet example of building a superpower: industrialisation was performed mainly on the basis of the foreign technology transfer

  • Soviet example of building a superpower: industrialisation was performed mainly on the basis of the foreign technology transfer

  • Import substitution programme via development of a new technological reality is determined by indigenous scientific & technological breakthroughs

  • Both innovations and economic power come from a proper environment of Science and Culture, not from mechanical transfer of technology

  • Science and culture are resulted from educational and social policy

  • Creation of planning system as means of concentration of capital to be spent on strategic development resources



  • Educational & Social Policy --->

  • Science (grasping principles of nature) --->

  • Engineering  (application of science) --->

  • Technology and Innovation (making engineering useful for public good and/or commercial gain) --->

  • Economy and Finance



‘In 1932 in the republic, the following was established: 12 R&D institutes, 15 experimental stations, 186 hydro stations and labs. 4,300 people from Kazakhstan were studying at the universities and scientific institutions of Moscow, Leningrad, Kazan, Tomsk, Kharkov, Omsk, Astrakhan and other cities. The number of the researchers was growing up steadily. For example, as described in the All-Soviet Union census poll in 1926, the following was counted in the republic: the lecturers and professors – 47, the authors and editors – 58, the librarians and museum workers – 143. In 1931 the number of the researchers was 324, and in 1932 – 558’.

  • ‘In 1932 in the republic, the following was established: 12 R&D institutes, 15 experimental stations, 186 hydro stations and labs. 4,300 people from Kazakhstan were studying at the universities and scientific institutions of Moscow, Leningrad, Kazan, Tomsk, Kharkov, Omsk, Astrakhan and other cities. The number of the researchers was growing up steadily. For example, as described in the All-Soviet Union census poll in 1926, the following was counted in the republic: the lecturers and professors – 47, the authors and editors – 58, the librarians and museum workers – 143. In 1931 the number of the researchers was 324, and in 1932 – 558’.

  • A new national intelligentsia in Kazakhstan in 1926-1939 grew up 8 times – from 22,5 thousand to 177,9 thousand of people. In 1932 the regional department of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded, and a network of the large universities was established in addition to thousands of the secondary schools throughout the republic.

  • Kulturnoe stroiyestvo Kazakhskoi SSR (Cultural construction of the Kazakh S.S.R.), 1960, Statistical Complilation, Alma-Ata, 90







  • Education and social policy create the environment which is favourable to human development. The USSR managed addressing the general poverty. Development of science and culture are resulted from a successful Soviet educational & social policy

  • ‘All men by nature desire to know’ (Aristotle) as a fundamental principle

  • Scientific discoveries open avenues for technological achievements (Broers, Kapitza and all others - scientists and engineers are consolidated in this view) with no connection to practical needs, which develop on the basis of the scientific discoveries



For the first time in history science is perceived as a ‘natural resource’ (Cocks)

  • For the first time in history science is perceived as a ‘natural resource’ (Cocks)

  • In the country, surviving through wars, famines, waves of emigrations and political purges, education and science are funded by demand. The spending on R&D was growing steadily to exceed that of the U.S., for instance, in 1960 with 2.7 per cent of the GNP and stabilised at the level of 5 per cent by 1980.

  • The broad funding of the Academy of Sciences was performed outside of Gosplan, and, for instance, in the 1960s it was done on the basis of a one-two page note written annually by hand by Mstislav Keldysh, the head of the Academy (Nekrassov)



The letters main ideas include:

  • The letters main ideas include:

    • To restore international contacts needed for scientific development reducing secrecy and dependency on patents to minimal
    • To exclude domestic science dependency on Western technology for import substitution programme
    • To rely on development of local cadres and Soviet technology in order to become truly advanced
    • To create special conditions, both for work and life, for scientists. His letters saved many lives including such a prominent physicist as Landau.
    • To reduce bureaucratic pressure to zero and increase prestige of Science and scientists in the society




  • The Soviet discoveries of the basic scientific breakthroughs in semiconductors and laser, concepts of metamaterials, superfluidity, on the one hand, as well as systems level innovation in the form of nuclear reactor, Sputnik and Gagarin, development of geology among many others, on the other, underpin our modern technological reality and global economy as well as the current industrial revolution





In 1978, Kapitsa won the Nobel Prize in Physics ’for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics’. Superfluidity is a part of functioning of CERN’s collider 

  • In 1978, Kapitsa won the Nobel Prize in Physics ’for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics’. Superfluidity is a part of functioning of CERN’s collider 



For his fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics that led to the development of laser  and maser, Basov shared the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics with Alexander Prokhorov and Charles Hard Townes

  • For his fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics that led to the development of laser  and maser, Basov shared the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics with Alexander Prokhorov and Charles Hard Townes





“Main oxygen board’s statement. From 1941, hospital began receiving liquid oxygen in unlimited quantities. Thanks to the method, developed by Pyotr Kapitza, usage of of liquid oxygen at industrial scale has saved lives of hundreds of thousands of wounded Red Army soldiers”

  • “Main oxygen board’s statement. From 1941, hospital began receiving liquid oxygen in unlimited quantities. Thanks to the method, developed by Pyotr Kapitza, usage of of liquid oxygen at industrial scale has saved lives of hundreds of thousands of wounded Red Army soldiers”











Spin Nematics (for next generation of environmental, medical and industrial senыors for applications ranging from satellite communication to chemical industry heat process management and mining exploration)

  • Spin Nematics (for next generation of environmental, medical and industrial senыors for applications ranging from satellite communication to chemical industry heat process management and mining exploration)

  • Computer Memories and Information Transport (e.g. components and fully integrated chips for quantum computation and memory storage)

  • Multifunctional Composites (these can act as both batteries for energy storage and process sunlight for energy production)

  • Magnetic Refrigeration (For example, manipulation of quantum spins can produce refrigeration that no longer requires cumbersome compressors or use of environmentally damaging gases such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) like R-12 or R-22. Such technologies have the potential to power our computers, keep our food fresh)

  • High-Temperature Superconductivity (for dissipation-less transmission of electricity and production of magnets for Maglev High Speed trains as well as plasma confinement reactors for energy production)



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