Name: Madinaxon Karimova Group: 2122

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Independent work 10 CS

Independent work 10. Cognitive semantics. 2 hours
Name: Madinaxon Karimova Group: 2122

  1. What is synergetic features?

In cognitive semantics, synergetic features refer to the combined effect of multiple semantic features in creating meaning. It's the idea that the interaction of various semantic features produces a coherent and unified concept or understanding that goes beyond the individual features themselves.

2. Write about fundamental semantic relations

Fundamental semantic relations in cognitive semantics include entailment, presupposition, and implicature. Entailment is a relationship where the truth of one statement requires the truth of another. Presupposition involves assumptions that must be true for a statement to make sense. Implicature refers to implied meaning that goes beyond the literal interpretation of a statement. These relations play a crucial role in understanding how language constructs meaning.

3. What you understood about compositionality? Componential analysis. Give examples.

Compositionality in cognitive semantics refers to the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituent parts and the way they are combined. It's the idea that the meaning of a whole expression can be derived from the meanings of its individual parts and their arrangement.

Componential analysis involves breaking down a word or expression into its semantic components or features to understand how its meaning is constructed. For example, in the word "unhappy," it can be broken down into "un-" (not) and "happy," where the meaning of "unhappy" is derived from the combination of "not" and "happy."

Similarly, in the phrase "black cat," the meaning of "black cat" is composed of the individual meanings of "black" and "cat," where the color and the animal are combined to create a unified meaning.

4. Figurative language and their features.

Figurative language in cognitive semantics involves the use of expressions that go beyond their literal meaning to create a specific effect. This includes various types of figures of speech such as metaphors, similes, metonymy, and irony. These features allow speakers to convey abstract or emotional concepts in a vivid and imaginative way, enriching the language by tapping into cognitive and emotional associations. For example, a metaphor compares two unlike things by stating that one is the other, whereas a simile makes a similar comparison using "like" or "as." These features play a significant role in how meaning is constructed and interpreted in cognitive semantics.
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