 # Physical Science Exam Review

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 Name: __________________ Physical Science Doc. # _______ Date: ______________ Mr. Barry Class Period _____ Physical Science Exam Review GOAL 1: Construct an understanding of mechanics. Vocabulary: speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, acceleration, force, net force, inertia, work, power, energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, centripetal force, centripetal acceleration, momentum 1.01—Analyze uniform and accelerated motion. Glencoe Physical Science: Chapter 2 _____ 1. A car going around a curve is said to be accelerating because: it is slowing down it is changing the direction of the velocity it is speeding up a car going around a curve is NOT accelerating _____ 2. When acceleration is negative, what happens? an object speeds up an object slows down an object turns an object goes backwards _____ 3. At the beginning of a race, Sam starts from rest and achieves a velocity of 5.0 m/s in just 4.0 seconds. What is his acceleration? A) 0.80 m/s2 1.25 m/s2 10 m/s2 20 m/s2 _____ 4. Vanessa drives 30 km on the highway at an average speed of 90 km/hr. How long does it take her? 3 hours 1 hour 30 minutes 20 minutes _____ 5. If you want to calculate the acceleration of a car, you should ___ the change in velocity of the car by the time interval. A) multiply B) increase C) decrease D) divide _____ 6. Which of the following is an example of a projectile? a basketball shot from half court a football at kickoff a spitwad shot through a straw all of the above _____ 7. What is the shape of the path that a projectile follows? a straight line a circle a curved path downward _____ 8. If you threw a baseball forward at a speed of 10 m/s and dropped another baseball from the same height at the same time, which would hit the ground first? the one you threw forward the one you just dropped they would hit the ground at the same time _____ 9. What does velocity tell you that speed does not tell you? how fast something is moving how far something has moved what direction something is moving nothing, it’s just harder to spell 1.02—Analyze forces and their relationship to motion, Newton’s three laws of motion. Glencoe Physical Science: Chapter 3 _____ 10. A person’s mass and weight are both measured on Earth and on the moon. Which is the same at both locations? A) mass only B) weight only C) both mass and weight D) both are different at two locations _____ 11. A car accelerates at a rate of 3.0 m/s2 after stopping at a red light. If the mass of the car is 3000 kg, what force does its engine exert? A) 1000 N B) 0.001 N C) 9000 N _____ 12. A 1.0 kg ball and a 5.0 kg ball are dropped at the same instant. Which one hits the ground first? the 1.0 kg ball the 5.0 kg ball they both hit at the same time _____ 13. If you drop a sheet of paper and a pencil at the same time, the pencil will hit the ground first even though they experience the same acceleration. Why is this true? there is more air resistance on the paper than the pencil there is more air resistance on the pencil than the paper the pencil is heavier this does not happen; they hit at the same time _____ 14. As an object falls, its downward velocity: decreases increases remains the same _____ 15. If the same force is applied to the following objects, which will accelerate the most? a pencil a desk a physical science book Ms. von St. Paul _____ 16. A 1.0 kg ball and a 5.0 kg ball are dropped at the same instant. Which one has more inertia? the 1.0 kg ball the 5.0 kg ball they both have the same inertia _____ 17. What do we call the unbalanced force that causes acceleration toward the center of a circle? net force centripetal force frictional force gravitational force _____ 18. Why does it hurt more to be hit by a bullet that is shot from a gun than to be hit by a bullet that is thrown at you? the faster moving bullet has more momentum the faster moving bullet is bigger it doesn’t hurt more; it hurts the same _____ 19. What causes acceleration? A) a balanced force B) an unbalanced force C) inertia D) mass E) velocity _____ 20. If a 1000 kg car is to accelerate at a rate of 3.0 m/s2, what force will its engine need to apply? A) 0.003 N B) 333 N C) 3000 N _____ 21. A force of 10 N accelerates a ball at the rate of 0.5 m/s2. What is the mass of the ball? A) 5.0 kg B) 0.005 kg C) 20 kg _____ 22. If an object has a mass of 100 kg , what is its weight? A) 100 N B) 10 N C) 980 N _____ 23. A 5000 kg airplane accelerates down the runway from rest achieving a speed of 130 m/s in 20 seconds. What is its acceleration? A) 6.5 m/s2 B) 1.92 m/s2 C) 2600 m/s2 D) 13,000,000 m/s2 _____ 24. When two people on skates try to play tug-of-war, they A) Newton’s 1st law of motion pull themselves as hard as they pull each other. B) Newton’s 2nd law of motion _____ 25. When you let go of a balloon C) Newton’s 3rd law of motion that is not tied, it flies across the room because as it pushes the air out, the air pushes it forward. _____ 26. It takes more force to stop a moving car than a bicycle moving at the same speed. _____ 27. A baseball that is thrown in space will keep moving at a constant speed in a straight line until it hits something. _____ 28. A force that acts against motion causing things to slow down is A) inertia B) friction C) gravity D) weight E) mass 1.03—Analyze the conservation of energy and work. Chapters 4 & 5 _____ 29. What is the kinetic energy of a 65 kg student running at 4.0 m/s? A) 16.25 J B) 260 J C) 130 J D) 520 J _____ 30. Marc pushes a box with a force of 55 N for 12 meters across the floor. How much work does he do? A) 4.58 J B) 660 J C) 0.22 J D) it depends on how fast he is pushing _____ 31. When Matt dives off the diving board and heads toward the water, what happens to his potential energy? it flies off in all directions it stays up on top of the diving board it turns into kinetic energy it drowns _____ 32. Who does the most work in the following situations? Jason pushes on a wall with a force of 200 newtons. Cliff solves seven word problems in his head. Jordan pushes a pencil across her desk. Stephen pushes a textbook across the lab table. _____ 33. One joule is the same as one: A) milliliter B) dm3 C) newton meter _____ 34. The law of conservation of energy states that if we don’t conserve, we will run out of energy energy is not created or destroyed, it is just changed from one form to another thermal energy is a form of energy Consider the following picture of a ball swinging on a string:    C A B _____ 35. At which position does the ball have the greatest potential energy? position A position B position C both positions A and C _____ 36. At which position does the ball have the greatest kinetic energy? position A position B position C both positions A and C _____ 37. Which of the following has the greatest potential energy? a 30 kg rock sitting on a ledge 2.0 meters high a 100 kg box resting on a chair 0.5 meters high a 50 kg person standing on a 100 meter high cliff a 45 kg track star running 6.0 m/s around a track _____ 38. Jessica pushes on a car stuck in a ditch with a force of 1000 N for 15 minutes. The car remains stuck. How much work did Lucas do? A) 66.7 J B) 1.11 J C) 15 000 J D) 0 J _____ 39. A 250 g rock flies through the air at a speed of 10.0 m/s. What is its kinetic energy? A) 2.5 J B) 25 J C) 2500 J D) 25 000 J GOAL 2: Build an understanding of thermal energy. Vocabulary: heat, thermal energy, thermal pollution, specific heat, vaporization, evaporation, sublimation, temperature, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, entropy, conduction, convection, radiation, friction, efficiency 2.01—Assess molecular motion as it relates to temperature and phase changes. --know effects of gaining or losing heat, such as contraction and expansion or rising and falling temperature or change of phase --be able to read a phase change graph (like the lab where we melted ice and then heated the water) --be able to describe or recognize the motion of molecules as heat is gained or lost and to describe the motion of molecules of a solid, a liquid and a gas Glencoe Physical Science: Chapter 6 _____ 40. A measure of the average kinetic energy that particles of a material have is called: A) temperature B) heat C) thermal energy D) conduction _____ 41. The type of thermal energy transfer that can only occur in fluids is: A) insulation B) conduction C) convection D) radiation _____ 42. Which of the following is true when a liquid changes to a gas? the liquid gives off thermal energy the liquid absorbs thermal energy the surroundings of the liquid become warmer 43.If 3800 joules of thermal energy are added to 100 g of copper, by how much will the temperature of the copper change? The specific heat of copper is 0.380 kJ/kg.K. 44.A 1.00 kg block of iron is heated from 22oC to 77oC. The specific heat of iron is 0.450 kJ/kg.K. What is the change in internal energy of the block? 4. 250 kg of glass are heated from 35oC to 45oC using 2100 kJ of thermal energy. What is the specific heat of glass? _____ 46. Which of the following would take the most heat to raise its temperature from 300 K to 325 K? 10 grams of iron (c= 450 j/kg K) 10 grams of sand (c= 664 j/kg K) 10 grams of silver (c= 235 j/kg K) 10 grams of water (c= 4184 j/kg K) _____ 47. Which of the following can result from thermal pollution? raised oxygen levels in heated water speeding up of biochemical processes in plants and animals boiling lakes cooking fish all of the above _____ 48. Which of the following has the most thermal energy? a pot of boiling water the Arctic Ocean a cup of hot tea a hot tub _____ 49. How much heat does it take to melt 100 grams of lead at its melting point? A) 328 J B) 1740 J C) 2500 J D) 32 800 J _____ 50. How much heat does it take to vaporize 50 g of ethyl alcohol at its boiling point? A) 79 J B) 3950 J C) 42 750 J D) 85 500 J _____ 51. Convert 70oC to Kelvins. A) 70 K B) 140 K C) 210 K D) 343 K _____ 52. Which of the following is absolute zero? A) 0oC B) 0oF C) 273 K D) 0 K _____ 53. Changing from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a gas requires: A) specific heat B) volume C) energy D) money _____ 54. The substance that has the most energy is A) tap water B) ice C) ice water D) steam _____ 55. Which of the following describes the particles of a liquid? extremely far apart able to expand without limit not free to move fairly close together _____ 56. Which of the following describes the particles of a solid? are spread far apart are packed very close together can move more easily than the particles in other phases can flow around each other _____ 57. Particles of which state of matter have the most kinetic energy? A) solids B) liquids C) gases 2.02—Analyze the conservation of the total amount of energy, including heat energy, in a closed system; the First Law of Thermodynamics Glencoe Physical Science: Chapter 6 _____ 58. A ________ changes heat energy into mechanical energy or work. A) heat engine B) radiator C) combustion _____ 59. Which of the following statements about a heat pump is true? In the summer, it moves heat from inside the house to outside and in the winter, it moves heat from outside the house to inside. In the summer, it moves heat from inside the house to outside and in the winter, it burns fuel. In the summer, it moves cold from outside the house to inside and in the winter, it moves cold from inside the house to outside. _____ 60. What unbalanced forces can cause some of the kinetic energy of a person swinging on a playground swing to change into thermal energy? centripetal force and centrifugal force force of gravity and force of weight air resistance and friction 2.03—Analyze the second law of thermodynamics Glencoe Physical Science: Chapter 6 _____ 61. In what direction does heat flow? from warmer to cooler objects from cooler to warmer objects from more massive to less massive objects it depends on the situation _____ 62. A ratio of the work output of a machine to the work input of a machine is called: power efficiency mechanical advantage Dostları ilə paylaş:
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