The Kingdoms of Africa



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Name ______________________________ Date ___________________

Mr. Pefanis Africa


The Kingdoms of Africa
I. Geography of Africa

A. Africa’s geography was very _______________________ & Africans were lived ________________________ based on where they lived

B. The ___________________ is the world’s _________________ desert & acted as a ______________________ to separate North Africa from sub-Saharan Africa

1. Characteristics of North Africa

a. Early societies of ____________________________ were influenced by Mediterranean cultures such as the Phoenicians & ___________________________

b. By 750, North Africans were part of the ___________ Empire, converted to _________________, & shared Arabic culture

2. Characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa

a. African societies ______________ of the Sahara were __________________________ & missed out on the cultural diffusion of the _____________________ Era

b. While the societies of sub-Saharan Africa were diverse, they shared some similarities

i. Most societies lived in _________________ villages in ____________________-based clans

ii. Few societies had __________________ languages; Histories were shared _____________________ by storytellers (griots)

iii. Made ______________ tools

iv. Sub-Saharan people were polytheistic: Practiced ______________________, a religion in which _______________ exist in nature &play a role in daily life

C. Bantu Migrations

1. Over the course of 4,000 years, ________________ peoples of central Africa ___________________________ south in search of farmland

2. These Bantu migrations helped spread new ________________ & ironworking techniques



II. East African Societies

A. The societies of _______________________ participated in the ________________________________________________ network & were shaped by cultural diffusion:

1. The kingdom of Aksum _____________ with Persia, India, Arabia, & Rome; Aksum became a ______________________ kingdom

2. Arab merchants introduced ____________________ to East African trade cities

a. The mix of African & ______________ cultures led to a new __________________________ language

b. Towns had _______________________ & were ruled by a Muslim sultan

c. But many people kept their traditional ____________________________ beliefs

III. West African Empires

A. West Africa was were shaped by the _________________________________________ trade network:

1. West Africans had large deposits of ______________, but lacked _______________

2. The _____________________________________________ connected North & West Africa

3. The gold-salt trade increased cultural diffusion with _______________________________ merchants

a. _______________________ was introduced in West Africa & slowed gained _________________________

b. Many Africans _________________ Islam with animism or _____________________ converted

B. The gold-salt trade led to ______________ & _________________ in West Africa

1. By 800, _____________________ became an empire by taxing merchants, building a large ____________________, & conquering surrounding people

a. Ghana kings served as ____________________ leaders, judges, & generals

2. Eventually Ghana was overthrown & the ______________ empire emerged

a. Mali’s King ______________________ took over the Ghana kingdom & _________________________ in West Africa

b. Sundiata created an ___________________ gov’t, promoted _____________________, & controlled trade

c. The kings who ruled Mali after Sundiata converted to ____________________

d. The most important king was ____________________________:

i. He built a 100,000 man ______________________ to keep control over Mali

ii. He divided Mali into _____________________ ruled by appointed _______________________

iii. Mansa Musa was a devout _________________ & went on a _______________ to Mecca in 1324

iv. Mansa Musa passed out __________________________________ to the people he met along the way

e. When he returned from Mecca, Mansa Musa built _ throughout Mali, including ______________________________

i. This trade city attracted ___________________, doctors, religious leaders

ii. It had a ______________________ & became an important center for ____________________________

3. After Mansa Musa, Mali declined & was replaced by __________________________________

a. Kings gained control of trade cities along the ___________________________ routes

b. Songhai grew into the ______________________ of the West African empires

c. Its fall in 1591 ended a ________________ year era of ____________________ in West Africa



IV. Conclusions:

A. African societies were transformed by two powerful forces:



1. _________________ with outsiders

2. Introduction of ___________________________

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