To be able to: To be able to



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To be able to:

  • To be able to:

  • Define terms used in programming

  • Describe and use features of a programming language

  • Explain the features of a program

  • Explain the importance and limitations of programming



Programming is the process of creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something. 

  • Programming is the process of creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something. 

  • All software is develop by programming.

  • Computer programming is often shortened to or coding)

  • It involves designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs.



Ada Byron Lovelace (1815-1852) was the world's first computer programmer.  

  • Ada Byron Lovelace (1815-1852) was the world's first computer programmer.  

  • In 1842, Ada was asked to write a scientific interpretation of the Analytical Engine and its operations.

  • These extensive writings on the Analytical Engine later became known as the first explanation of computer programming.

  • A computer language, Ada, was later named after her by the Ada Joint Program Office in 1964



Dr. Grace Murray Hopper was a lady in the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships, who worked with Howard Aiken from 1944 and used his machine for gunnery and ballistics calculation

  • Dr. Grace Murray Hopper was a lady in the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships, who worked with Howard Aiken from 1944 and used his machine for gunnery and ballistics calculation

  • One day, the program she was running gave incorrect results and, upon examination, a moth was found blocking one of the relays.



The bug was removed and the program performed to perfection. Since then, a program error in a computer has been called a bug.

  • The bug was removed and the program performed to perfection. Since then, a program error in a computer has been called a bug.

  • Debugging is a process of finding and correcting errors, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware.



A programming language is a notation for writing computer software.

  • A programming language is a notation for writing computer software.

  • Programming languages are can be used to create the procedures and specifications of a computation or algorithm.

  • NB: Examples of popular programming languages include:

  • FORTRAN (FORmular TRANslator)

  • BASIC (Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)

  • Visual BASIC

  • COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language)

  • C and C++

  • Java

  • Pascal, Perl, e.t.c.



When computers execute programs written in languages such as BASIC, C, Java, etc., the computer must convert these humanly readable instructions into a form it can understand.

  • When computers execute programs written in languages such as BASIC, C, Java, etc., the computer must convert these humanly readable instructions into a form it can understand.

  • System software contains the special language translation programs that translate these higher-level language programs into machine language that the computer can execute.



System software includes a compiler, interpreter, and assembler.

  • System software includes a compiler, interpreter, and assembler.

  • The program in the high-level language before translation into machine language is called source code.

  • A compiler translates source code into machine binary code called object code.



Some programming languages such as BASIC do not use a compiler but an interpreter.

  • Some programming languages such as BASIC do not use a compiler but an interpreter.

  • An interpreter translates each source code statement one at a time into machine code and executes it.

  • An assembler is similar to compiler, but it is used to translate only assembly language into machine code.



Programming languages can be classified into:

  • Programming languages can be classified into:

  • Low level programming languages and high level programming languages

  • 1. Low level programming language

  • This is a language only understood by the computer. It is normally presented in binary coded machine instructions that are understood by the CPU.

  • Machine language is a low level prog language



2. High Level programming languages

  • 2. High Level programming languages

  •  This refers to an artificial language used to write instructions that can be translated into machine language and then executed by the computer

  •  



 FIRST GENERATION

  •  FIRST GENERATION

  • - Machine language i.e. they required writing a long string of binary numbers to represent such operations like Add, subtract and compare

  • SECOND GENERATION

  • - Symbolic or assembly, languages were introduced

  • THIRD GENERATION

      • Algorithmic, or procedural languages for solving a particular problem
      • Later FORTRAN was developed COBOL, ALGOL, APL
      • BASIC
  • FOURTH GENETATION

  • FIFTH GENERATION

      • 5GLs
      • LOGO


Ada: Pascal – based language used by the department of defence

  • Ada: Pascal – based language used by the department of defence

  • ALGOL: international language for expressing algorithms

  • APL: used for statistics and mathematical matrices

  • BASIC: (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic instruction Code)








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