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Jurnali ‘mnaTobi’ N 2, tfilisi, 1924 weli

valerian gafrindaSvili

eqspresionistuli lirika
mTavari, rac axasiaTebs ama TuU im literaturul skolas, aris misi misvla sinamdvilesTan, obieqtur qveyanasTan, saganTa miReba, an ar miReba sinamdvilisa.

fotografiuli asaxva sinamdvilis cnobilia, rogorc naturalizmi, romelic dRes ar akmayofilebs realistebsac.

impresionizmi Tavis droze moevlina mxatvrobas da Semdeg poezias, rogorc axali sityva.

igi iyo protesti naturalizmis winaaRmdeg, radgan icavda pirveli STabeWdilebis siwmindes, Tundac es STabeWdileba ar iyos WeSmariti.

es meTodi hqmnida xandisxan feeriul da uSualo saxeebs, magram impresionizmi Tavis ganviTarebis procesSi iqca qaotiur STabeWdilebaTa kinematografad da roli xelovanis, romelic sargeblobda am meTodiT, iyo meqanikuri.

yovel SemTxvevaSi impresionizms hqonda Tavisi dinamika da man didi samsaxuri gauwia xelovnebas. igi warmoSva laTinTa rasis geniam, es aris rasa floberis, teofil gotiesi da lekont de – lilis, romelTaTvis esTetiuri fenomeni formisa Rirsia religiur Tayvaniscemis.

impresionizmis memkvidre aris eqspresionizmi, romelsac gacilebiT ufro didi pretenziebi aqvs.

mas ar unda ubralo asaxva sagnebis, an pirveli STabeWdilebis, mas unda sulieri gardaqmna da feriscvaleba saganTa.

impresionizmi stovebda sagans ucvlelad, mxolod inaxavda misgan miRebul wminda STabeWdilebas. mas ar undoda raime rekomendacia gaekeTebia sagnisaTvis mkiTxvelis winaSe. erTi wuTiT aRdgenili sagani, isev ikargeboda usaxelo qaosSi.

eqspresionizmi zedmiwevniT aqtiuria. is naTlavs sagans saxeliT Sen xar tye, Sen _ qalaqi. am SemTxveviT maqs pikaris sityviT uolt uitmeni aris winamorbedi eqspresionizmis (,,Seni misisipi”).

saWiroa qaosis daZleva, amitom aucilebelia paTetiuri misvla sagnebTan, rom movitacoT isini qaosidan.

paTosi, rogorc aqtiuri Zala, rogorc gancdis intensivoba, aris qvakuTxedi. eqspresionistul poetikisa.

SeuZlebelia WeSmaritebis Zieba, Semoqmedeba da TviT sicocxle am paTosis gareSe.

tiutCevi adidebda qaoss, rogorc sulisa da bunebis gardauval stiqias, magram bunebis dionisiur saxis garda, man icoda saxe apoliniuri. saxe kurTxeuli dRis da ara demoniur Ramis. man icoda saxe meduzis, magram ar icoda agreTve saxe madonis.

eqspresionistebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia intensiuri grZnoba qaosisa da imave dros survili qaosis daZlevisa.

maT ar undaT, rom adamiani, es ,,moazrovne lerwami“, iyos movlenaTa mona; maT surT gaabatonon absoliuturi ,,me“ mTel msoflioSi.

metad damaxasiaTebelia eqspresionistul lirikisaTvis krebuli ,,xareba“, axalgazrda lirikosebis antologia, romelic gamovida 1920 wels niWier kritikosis rudolf kaizeris redaqciiT.

am krebulSi monawileoben axalgazrda germaniis yvela Zalebi.

am jgufis mrwamsi aris gamoTqmuli kaizeris winasityvaobaSi.

,,Cveni dro“ aris dro sevdisa da lirika yvelaze ufro Sesaferi literaturuli formaa. didi dramaturgia Tvisebaa klasikur epoqebis, rodesac Sexeduleba msoflioze da xelovnebaze bejiTia da swori. didi eposi gulisxmobs Tvalsazriss, romlis winaSe iSleba farTe horizontebi. ar aris SemTxveva, rom wigni lirikis bedavs iyos Cvenis drois warmomadgeneli. TviT Sinaarsi Cveni droisa arsebiTad liriulia. Cveni drois lirika daibada momavlis wyurvilidan. is eZebs axal samSoblos da axal sarwmunoebas. is religiuria. mas unda aRmoaCinos axali gzebi RmerTisadmi, ucnob warmarTul da da qristianul RmerTisadmi, romelsac ar sWirdeba jojoxeTi da samoTxe, magram romelic dapirebaa Svelisa da gamosyidvisa“.

imave avtoris sityviT, axali germania ar uarhyofs stefan georges, maria _ rilkes, hofmanstals, rogorc formis ostatebs, magram Tavis maswavleblad acxadebs dostoevskis, strindbergs, rixard demels da uolt uitmens.

eqspresionistebis poeturi Semoqmedeba savsea moralur paTosiT.Aaxal Taobas surs daamsxvrios Zveli formulebi da agreTve formula ,,xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis“. imave kaizeris sityviT, maT ar undaT daxaton is, rac aris.

Cveni mTrTolvare bavSuri xelebiT Cven vetanebiT TviT msoflios siRrmes, Cven vmReriT, vwinaswarmetyvelobT, vloculobT, Cven vdgavarT udabnosa da dapirebul edems Sua“.

maTis azriT, Tanamedrove poezia unda iqnes politikuri. politikuri poeti uyvarT imitom, rom mas ar SeuZlia lodini. es poeti cocxali ajanyebaa. evoliucia ki Sesdgeba katastrofidan. poeti meamboxe unda SeiWras realur politikis sferoSi. winad xelovneba SezRuduli esTetizmis CarCoebiT, amtkicebda qveyanas da ar gardaqmnida mas.

valter hazenkleveris leqsi ,,politikuri poeti“, imis garda rom iZleva socialur ajanyebis verxarnisebur suraTs, aRadgens poets tribunis rolSi:

is ar ocnebobs molurjo zRvebze,

hxedavs magarsa STamomavlobas,

sircxvilis mtversa fexqveSa sTelavs

da erebs hmosavs SaravandediT.
neiStadis sityviT, eWvs gareSea, rom laSqroba germanel poetebisa esTetizmisa da simvolizmis winaaRmdeg. wyurvili respublikanur poeziisa, cda axali esTetiuri formisa. brZola Zvel formebTan ara esTetiurisaTvis swarmoebs axali esTetiuri formebis saSualebiT.

uciloa kavSiri eqspresionizmisa romantizmTan.

igi ayenebs pirvel adgilze sakuTar ,,me”-s, radgan subieqtivizmi aris piroba yovelive Semoqmedisa. Tavis gancdebis dargSi ,,me” unda gamefdes da araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar daemorCilos sagnebs.

,,Tanamderove poetebi ise arian dajerebuli Tavis qmediT intuiciaSi, rogorc mecnierebi Tavis maTematikur gonebaSi”.

samoci wlis winad bodleri aRiarebda amave azrs Tavis ,,maqsimebSi”.

poetis gancdidan ibadeba axali qmnileba, romelic gadavardeba Semdeg msoflioSi.

yvelaze ufro Zvirfasia is rwmena, romliTac poetebi ucqerian Tavis daniSnulebas. poezias isev swyuria dadges Tavis legendarul simaRleze da waruZRves kacobriobas.

ueWvelia agreTve eqspresionistebis kavSiri ,, grigalisa da amboxebis genialur WabukebTan“. es epoqa ,,Storm und Drung”-is iyo erTi saxe romantizmisa da mas ekuTvnodnen Tavis axalgazrdobaSi Sileri (,,yaCaRebi”) da goete ( ,,verteri”), henrix klaisti da lenci. Mme xazs usvam imas, rom ,,grigalis da amboxebis” periodTan da gansakuTrebiT SillerTan eqspresionistebs didi kavSiri aqvT. maTi kulti revoliuciis da katastrofis, maTi moraluri paTosi, TiTqos aRdgenaa Sillerisa da romantizmis pirvandel revoliuciuri xanis, roca misi ajanyeba Zveli literaturisa da cxovrebis winaaRmdeg iyo TavSeukavebeli da usazRvro.

agreTve ar dasmula sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori gavlena hqonda romantikos gofmans eqspresionistebze. es gavlena ki ueWvelia da cxadia.

aris maT lirikaSi Zieba ,,mSvenier damis” _ ( lixtenSteini _ ,, xuTi simRera mariaze“).

agreTve aris maT lirikaSi dabruneba bunebasTan, romantiuli gataceba velur cxovrebiT da peizaJiT. ( martin gumbert _ leqsi ,,taiti“).

cnobilia, rom romantizmis erTi frTa madidebeli iyo saSual _ saukuneebis. eqspresionistebi isev acocxleben atavisturad saSual _ saukuneebis saxeebs.

poet georg geims aqvs leqsi: ,,qalaqis demonebi”, romelSiac is Zalian detalurad agviwers am demonebs.

meore poetis ernst dremis leqsi ,, qorwili” iZleva adamianisa da eSmakis erotiul Cvenebas.

maT lirikaSi sCans gavlena verlenis niuansebis da laforgis ironiis _ sasowarkveTis: _ ,,ltolvis qaravani”:

Cveni ltolvebis grZeli qaravani

ver naxavs udabnoSi Crdilsa da feriebs.

gvwvavs siyvaruli, wamebis frinvelni

Cvens guls sacodavs yovelTvis hkortnian.

ax! kargad vicnobT qarebs da wvimebs.

yvelgan SeiZleba iyos eliziumi,

Cven ki davexetebiT marad ltolvaSi.

sadRac fanjridan gadavardeba adamiani

varskvlavis dasaWerad da kvdeba amisaTvis.

viRac daeZebs panoptikumSi

sanTlis ocnebas da uyvars igi.

magram Cvens gulSi ar cxreba cecxli...

Cven rom dagvfaron nilosma da niagaram _

Cven davikivlebdiT wyurvilisagan mainc. ( ivan holl)
sagulisxmoa maTi portretebi _ moTavsebuli vladimer neiStadis wignSi. Cven win, TiTqos dgebian edgar poes gmirebi garujuli da SeSlili saxeebiT.

sainteresoa peizaJi eqspresionistebis _ unugeSo, mkrTali da moqanculi, rogorc verlenis saRamo, magram isini xSirad moaTavseben Tavs sulier dramas grigalis, zRvisa, aduRebul SuadRis, an gatexil mTvaris fonze.

poeti ernst dremi mTel leqss uZRvnis ,,afrikanul horizonts“. Ddamwvars, uimedos, magram yovelTvis savses miraJebiT.

parnaselebis udabno _ qandakebaa, eqspresionistebis _ fata-morgana.

qari daqris demonebTan erTad maT leqsebSi. magram poetebi aneleben Tavis ,,msoflio sevdas“ saRamos zefirebSi.

verleni adarebda adamianis suls peizaJs da sworeT aseT sakvirvel peizaJs qmnian eqspresionistebi.

maTi leqsebis saTaurebidan Cven miviRebT naTel warmodgenas maT leqsikonze da saxeebze. es TiTqos laforgis saTaurebia:
,, masxara TovlSi”.

,, momakvdavi unter-aficeri galiciis lazareTSi”.

,, mkvlelebi sxedan operaSi”.

,, gamoTxoveba apaSTan”.

,, kvira- dRis dasasruli”.
xSirad eqspresionistebis leqsebi dawerilia Tavisufali (vers liber) da TeTri leqsiTac. aSkaraa tendencia sintaqsisis gardaqmnisa. poeti ioan beheri, romlis ena ufro gansxvavdeba klasikur enidan, ase mogviTxrobs enis revoliuciis Sesaxeb:

,,moulodnelad me avmetyveldi axali eniT, vgrZnobdi, vwerdi, vyvirodi da visrodi sruliad axals da ucnob sityvebs. dasawyisi da dasasruli germanul enisa. amazed meti: es ukve me ar viyavi! Aajanyeba! winadgrZnoba, gamocxadeba! Bbeberi periodebi skdebodnen... yvela elementebi zeimobdnen. fanatiuri ganadgureba... warRvna! samoTxe! o, kaleidoskopi! Mmiwis qveS myofi ritmebi! mWreli elvareba Tanxmovanebis. o, ras ar vumRerodi me. vamaxinjebdi da vasxvanairebdi...”

SeiZleba es iyos axali renesansi germanul lirikis. simbolizmis SeqmnaSi germanelebma epigonebis roli iTamaSes.

lirika eqspresionistebis eklektiuria. is bevr rameSi enaTesaveba frang simbolistebis poezias. Lleqsi maqs brodis ,, oqros Tevzebi sawer magidaze” aris dawerili simboliur meTodiT.

TiTqos am lirikas ara aqvs Tavisi garkveuli saxe ganumeorebeli da mTliani. Ees saTuTi lirika xSirad aris mogoneba da restavracia poeziis winandel formebisa. Mmagram originaluria maTi gulwrfeloba, romelic didi xnis antraktis Semdeg isev evlineba poezias da anoyierebs mas.

TiTqos maTi lirika ukanaskneli aRsarebaa sikvdilis win da iq araviTari adgili ara aqvs daTmobili pozas. Ppoeti isev unda gaxdes qurumi da winaswarmetyveli.

gancdebis gamZafreba _ ZiriTadi Tvisebaa eqspresionistul lirikis.

maTi leqsebis wakiTxvis Semdeg _ sityvebi gaviwydebaT, magram xsovnaSi rCeba qviTinis mwvave da garmoniuli xma.

imaT ar SeuqmniaT axali saxe mSvenierebis, Tu saSinelebis, imaT ar gaumdidrebiaT xelovnebis ca axali varskvlavebiT, magram maT uTuod Seqmnes axali TrTolva, romlis Sesaxeb swerda viqtor hiugo Sarl bodlers.

isini qadageben brZolas imperialistur evropasTan da umRerian amboxebas, romelic gaanadgurebs Tanamedrove burjuaziul sazogadoebas.

maTi pesimizmi aris gamowveuli im damarcxebiT, romelic naxa germaniam ukanasknel omSi. bevri am poetebidan kidevac daiRupa am omSi (ivan holli, alfred lixtenSteini da sxvebi) da maTi leqsebi rekviemia.

maTi pesimizmi savsea paTosiT. poeti ioan beheri swers leqss romelSiac esalmeba gresefesers;


oqros namgali da CaquCi mooqrovili!

aisis cecxli da xorbalTa Taigulebi!

o, filistero, muxlmodrekiT scani yoveli:

xanZari brZolis _ sazeimo cecxlTa mToveli,

daRvare cremli mwuxarebis da uZlurebis!
maTi lirika savsea ,,siyvaruliT moyvasisadmi”.

franc verfeli aseTi vedrebiT mimarTavs mkiTxvels Tavis leqsSi ,,mkiTxvelisadmi”:

yvelas vekuTvni da Seni var, mkiTxvelo, Seni!

me gevedrebi, o, miTxari: Cveni xar, Cveni!

N netavi erTxel axdebodes natvra faruli,

rom Cven erTmaneTs CavexutoT Zmur siyvaruliT!

es qristianuli xazi metad Zlieria da TvalsaCinoa eqspresionistebis lirikaSi. Aam siyvarulis Zeglia SesaniSnavi leqsi imave verfelis ,,cremlebi”.

germaneli poetebi dostoevskisTan erTad aRiareben wamebis kults:

daviwyebulia nicSeanuri ideali zekacisa da poezia isev aRiarebs nazarevelis ideals.

poeti _ vazaa uwmindesi cremlebis. eqspresionizmi kidev ar aris dasrulebuli skola. am skolis konstitucia jer kidev ar dawerila. es lirika _ fragmentia. igi ar aris datvirTuli istoriul da miTologiur saxelebiTY da miT ufro uaxlovdeba simReras.

es lirika individualuria, magram xoros STabeWdilebas stovebs.

TviTon poetebs eqspresionistebs imedi aqvT, rom maTi lirika uvertiuraa didi simfoniis.



da es imedi marTldeba franc verfelis da valter hazenkleveris dramatiul SemoqmedebaSi, romelsac pirdapiri kavSiri aqvs maT lirikasTan, magram es calke eqskursis sagania.


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