Environmental Impacts and Human Values Values are used by humans to make choices



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tarix07.11.2018
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Environmental Impacts and Human Values


Human Values

  • Values are used by humans to make choices

  • Making choices in congruence to one’s values provides meaning, comfort, and a sense of well being

  • Making choices outside of one’s values results in feelings of guilt



Individual Values (after Maslow)

  • Hierarchy that are related to:



Religious Values

  • Designate meaning

  • Provide morality

  • Defines relative importance of relationships

    • God-human
    • Human-human
    • Human-environment
  • Provide social control and expectations



Social and Community Values

  • Provide for health and safety

  • Protect freedoms

  • Define responsibilities

  • Allows for political involvement

  • Provide social safety net for young and old, disadvantaged, and disenfranchised



Factors that Control Worldviews



Four Boxes

  • 1- Hierarchists: value control, organizations, standardization, top-down

  • 2- Egalitarians: value consensus, democracy, equality, community choice

  • 3- Individualists: value individual freedom, personal choice

  • 4- Fatalists: value freedom, strength to resist, individual power



Relation of Worldview to Environmental Impacts



Theory of Society Stages

  • Four stages:

    • Survival
    • Pre-modern
    • Modern
    • Post-modern


Survival

  • Focus on:

    • hard work
    • practical knowledge
    • money
    • possessions
    • avoid mistakes




Pre-modern (hierarchical)

  • Focus on:

    • work
    • skills/ trades
    • stability
    • family values
    • religious values
    • national values




Modern

  • Focus on:

    • Achievement
    • Professional education
    • Investments
    • Political involvement
    • Corporate or bureaucratic values




Post-modern (individual)

  • Focus on:

    • Individual freedom
    • Individual education
    • Financial achievement
    • Good health
    • Travel
    • Consumption
    • Self-actualization




Post-modern (egalitarian)

  • Focus on:

    • Community freedom
    • Arts
    • Human relationships
    • Economic well being and health for all
    • Equality
    • Actualization of society




Developmental Progression



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