47. Rebellion Against the Russian Colonial Oppression in Northern Azerbaijan in the 1830s


The Administrative and Agrarian Reforms in Northern Azerbaijan In the 1840s



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48.The Administrative and Agrarian Reforms in Northern Azerbaijan In the 1840s On 10 April 1840 I Nikolai in the South Caucasus gave the law about administrative and judicial reform. The law came into force on 1st January 1841. With this law has been canceled commandant system. There was an amendement administrative structure of the South Caucasus and it had been adapted administrative-territorial division of the empire. South Caucasus had divided two patts – 1. Georgian-Emeriti governor (the central city was Tbilisi) and 2. Caspian province (the central city was Shamakhi). Provincial and district had divided to the gazas (areas). Gazas also had divided to parts. Darband, Guba, Baku, Shamakhi, Nukha, Shusha and Lankaran gazas belonged to the Caspian province. The administrative division had broken integrity and borders of Azerbaijan. Thus, Kazakh and Shamsad-dil areas together Yelizavetpol (Ganja) gaza, Jar-Balakan, Ira-van and Nakchivan districts were included in the Emeriti provin-ce. The position of district representatives had been abolished. According to 10 April 1840 law a judicial system created again. Regional and provincial courts established. In Azerbaijan shariat courts were based on national and religious traditions. They just could deal with marriage, divorce and inheritan-ce issues. Administrative, judicial reform strengthened colonial oppression. The measures taken among the population increased dissatisfaction. From chief judge of the gaza (area) for those officials could punish people. However criminal cases over not in military courts had been solved at the civilian courts. In 40s of the administrative-judicial reform caused protests of local privilege class. At the districts happening against the colonists rising in arms very scared government. More serious mistake the issuance of decrees on the confiscation of lands agas’ and lords’. Tsar informed about the results of inspection. In 1842 was stopped to the confiscation of lands lords’ and bays’. In autumn 1844 Shamsaddil, Borchali and Kazakh villagers had refused to pay tax and executed obligations. By increasing peasant wave of excitement covered Yelizavetpol, Shusha, Nukha, Guba districts. These dissatisfactions have increased the local feudal tendencies, government. Tsar officials comprehend that to restrain the peasants need to getting the local feudal lords. In 1844 was created Caucasian successorship’s. The chief referee of Southern Caucasus has been canceled. The successor had been given a great authority. He was appointed by tsar. He just reports to the tsar. Graf Vorontsov had been appointed the first successor of Caucasian (1844-1854). According to the program of Nikolai I (1843) the higher group Muslim proprietors ownership rights in order to implement a new political line played an important role. 14 December 1846 with the decree of tsar had been abolished Georgian-Emeriti and Khazar governorates. Instead of them here were established 4 governorates - Tbilisi, Kutais, Darband and Shamakhi governors. Guba district had kept inside Darband governorate. Yelizavetpol and Nakhchivan districts had been kept inside Tbilisi governorates. Jar-Balakan and Ilisu lands were established Jar Balakan community. Shamakhi governorate consisted – Baku, Shamakhi, Nukha, Shusha and Lankaran areas. In 1849 was established Irevan governorate. Nakchivan and Ordubad districts also had been included here. Governorates had been managed by governors who were appointed by tsar. By decree of 25 April 1841 aghalars (lords) who were living Kazakh, Shamsaddil and Borchali areas had been deprived the land ownership and rights on the peasants, who cultivated these lands. By decree of 28 May 1841 the bays of Khazar province had to be confiscated. Also bays had been away from village administration. But it has been stopped after the execution of their issuance. Nikolai I by decree of 6 December 1846 signed a rescript about of rights bays and aghalars (lords). To giving soil to the higher group representatives of the Muslim proprietors were presented as the “mercy of monarch”. Lords and bays for this mercy had to serve in the army. The significance of rescript was that the higher Muslim proprietors gained the same reliance on land rights as Russian aristocratcs. In addition mulk (property), mulk-khalisa also tiyul (this was limited with the period of being in the service, not inherited land, which was shared to the vassal as the part of rent-tax (by money or nature), without owning these objects), as offically was dec-lared the property of lords. This rescript had prevented lands of bays and lords to passing other representatives. This rescript land-owner gave right establish rules of law among peasants and gaved them police right to carry out a method of management. By decree of 1846 citizen had gave to the farmhand, servant and elat (group of related people) common the name of the subordinate landlord. According to 20 April 1847 rule bay peasants‘ of, on 28 December rule aga peasants’ belonged. For each man was given 5 acres of land. Peasants instead of these were paid malcehet (which amount consisted of 1/10 part of the harvest. Malcahat was paid especially with products and productions of agricultural industry - wheat, barley, rice, silk and etc.). Bay for use in pastures had been paid chopbashı tax. In addition, peasants 18 days have to do unpaid works (biyar). They would 2 days come to common works (imajlik). Also peasants could work except its owner with another one too. 1846-1847 laws can be appriciated as a joint struggle of the masses of peasants with higher classes. To exem-ption of cattle-breeders land tax decreased levels of agriculture.
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