A presentation on congress of vienna: 1814-1815 {The Concert of Europe: Vienna System}


Map of Europe AFTER the Congress of Vienna 1815



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CONGRESS OF VIENNA - BY CHARLES PATRICK MOKWENYEI

Map of Europe AFTER the Congress of Vienna 1815
  • Russia received most of the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland) and retained Finland (which it had annexed from Sweden in 1809 and would hold until 1917, as the Grand Duchy of Finland).
  • Prussia received three-fifths of Saxony, western parts of the Duchy of Warsaw (most of which became part of the newly formed Grand Duchy of Posen), Gdańsk (Danzig), the Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine (merger of the former French departments of Rhin-et-Moselle, Sarre, and Roer (Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, itself a merger of the former Prussian Guelders, Principality of Moers, and the Grand Duchy of Berg).
  • A German Confederation of 39 states, under the presidency of the Austrian Emperor, formed from the previous 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire. Only portions of the territories of Austria and Prussia were included in the Confederation (roughly the same portions that had been within the Holy Roman Empire).
  • The Netherlands and the Southern Netherlands (approximately modern-day Belgium) became a united monarchy, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the House of Orange-Nassau providing the king (the Eight Articles of London).To compensate for Orange-Nassau's loss of the Nassau lands to Prussia, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were to form a personal union under the House of Orange-Nassau, with Luxembourg (but not the Netherlands) inside the German Confederation.
  • Swedish Pomerania, given to Denmark in January 1814 in return for the Kingdom of Norway, became part of Prussia. France received back Guadeloupe from Sweden, with yearly instalments payable to the Swedish king.
  • The neutrality of the 22 cantons of Switzerland was guaranteed and a federal pact was recommended to them in strong terms. Bienne and the Prince-Bishopric of Basel became part of the Canton of Bern. The Congress also suggested a number of compromises for resolving territorial disputes between cantons.
  • The former Electorate of Hanover was expanded to a kingdom. It gave up the Duchy of Lauenburg to the Kingdom of Denmark, but gained former territories of the Bishop of Münster and formerly Prussian East Frisia.
  • Most of the territorial gains of Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau under the mediatizations of 1801–1806 were recognized.
  • Bavaria also gained control of the Rhenish Palatinate and of parts of the Napoleonic Duchy of Würzburg and Grand Duchy of Frankfurt. Hesse-Darmstadt, in exchange for giving up the Duchy of Westphalia to Prussia, received Rhenish Hesse with its capital at Mainz.
  • Austria regained control of the Tyrol and Salzburg; (from Russia); and received Lombardy–Venetia in Italy and Ragusa in Dalmatia. Former Austrian territory in Southwest Germany remained under the control of Württemberg and Baden; the Austrian Netherlands were also not recovered.
  • Ferdinand III was restored as Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Archduke Francis IV was acknowledged as the ruler of the Duchy of Modena, Reggio and Mirandola.
  • The Papal States under the rule of the Pope were restored, with the exception of Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin, which remained part of France.
  • Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers, notably the Rhine and the Danube.
  • Representatives of Austria, France, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Sweden-Norway, and Britain signed the Final Act. Spain did not sign, but ratified the outcome in 1817.
  • The King of Sardinia, re-established in Piedmont, Nice, and Savoy, gained control of Genoa (putting an end to the brief proclamation of a restored Republic of Genoa).
  • The Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were taken from the Queen of Etruria and given to Marie Louise of Austria for her lifetime
  • The Duchy of Lucca was established for the House of Bourbon-Parma, with reversionary rights to Parma after the death of Marie Louise.
  • The slave trade was condemned.


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