(b Rossano; fl 1571–4). Italian composer and singer. He was probably a singer at S Marco, Venice, about the middle of the 16th century. At the time of the dedication of his La nobilità di Roma: versi in lode di cento gentildonne romane (Rome, 15718, 2/157319; ed. A. Pugliese, forthcoming) he was a ‘musico’ in the service of the Cardinal Ippolito d’Este, presumably in his Roman palace; a payment to him is recorded in 1570. Many of the pieces in this publication are dedicated individually to noble Roman ladies, a practice common in poetic anthologies of the period such as those of Mutio Manfredi, and one also occasionally adopted by composers such as Vincenzo Spada in his Primo libro delle villanelle (1589). Each of these three-part strophic pieces is printed alongside a lute accompaniment intabulated by Francesco di Parise, ‘musico eccellentissimo in Rome’. Strong social connections inform his two other surviving music publications, Libro secondo [di] canzonelle and Libro terzo di canzonelle (both Venice, 1574), both for three and four voices. The former is dedicated to the ladies of Genoa and is one of the longest publications of its kind; the latter is dedicated to Giovanni Battista Doria and praises the military and naval achievements of various members of this distinguished Genoese family in its preface. The volume contains a number of pieces dedicated to the victors of the Battle of Lepanto (1571) including Marc’ Antonio Colonna, Cardinal Gronvelle and Don Juan of Austria. The word ‘canzonella’ no doubt was intended as a fusion of ‘canzonetta’ and ‘villanella’.
Fiorino almost certainly wrote his own texts. One further publication Opera nuova chimata la fama libro primo... (Lyons, 1577) contains sixty-one ‘canzonelle alla napolitana’ presented in sequence without music. It appears, classified as music, in Israel Sprach’s bibliography, but even if a separate music fascicle were published no copies of it are known to have survived. As in his other publications, each of the pieces in the Opera nuova is dedicated to individual women; the choices here show him to have been well connected to some of the most prominent Lyonnais families including the Buonvisi, merchants from Lucca.
I.Sprach: Nomenclator scriptorum philosophicorum atque philologicorum (Strasbourg, 1598)
L.Guillo: Les éditions musicales de la Renaissance lyonnaise (Paris, 1991), 345
A.Pugliese: ‘La cappella musicale del Cardinale Ippolito II d’Este,’, La cappella musicale nell’Italia della Controriforma: Cento (1989), 381–94, esp. 391
I.Fenlon: ‘“Foederis in Turcase Sanctio”: Music, Ceremony and Celebration in Counter-Reformation Rome’, ‘La Musique, de tous les passetemps le plus beau Hommage à Jean-Michel Vaccaro’: eds. F. Lesure and H. Vanhulst (Paris 1998), 167–93
(It.: ‘flourish’, ‘flowering’).
Embellishment of a melodic line, either improvised by a performer or written out by the composer. The use of words meaning ‘flower’ or ‘florid’ to refer to the process of ornamenting melodies has long been common in most European languages. Jerome of Moravia (13th century) listed various melodic ornaments as ‘flos harmonicus’, and the Meistersingers of the 16th century referred to their ornaments as ‘Blumen’ (‘flowers’). While ‘fioritura’ as a musical term would be understood by any Italian, it is (like ‘coloratura’) notably absent from Italian treatises, where ornamentation is elucidated with more precise terminology (‘trillo’, ‘mordente’, ‘passaggi’ etc.).
Fioroni [Fiorone, Florono], Giovanni Andrea
(b Pavia, 1715/16; d Milan, 19 Dec 1778). Italian composer. His death certificate (in I-Mas) indicates that he was born in 1715, but a document of 1726 (in I-PAVc) suggests 1716 as the year of his birth. This is supported by his burial certificate. As stated by Gervasoni, he studied with Leo in Naples for 15 years. On 10 June 1747 he was in Pavia, from where he sent an application for the post of maestro di cappella of Milan Cathedral. The competition judges, who included G.B. Martini and G.A. Perti, examined a composition in stile antico ‘sopra canti fermi ambrosiani’ (now in I-Bc, Md) and Fioroni was favoured ‘per sapere e studio’. He held the post from 16 December 1747 until his death. He also held similar posts at S Marco from 1762 and at S Alessandro and S Maria della Visitazione (where he succeeded G.B. Sammartini) from 1775. He composed a number of pieces for the cathedrals of Como, Bergamo and Vimercate.
A few copies of his music dated in the 1780s and 90s suggest their continued use by his successors; Francesco Bianchi, for one, scored several of Fioroni’s works between 1782 and 1783. A century later Fioroni’s music was still being performed at S Maria presso S Celso where he had often helped select singers.
Fioroni’s sacred music, written mostly for the fairly large forces of Milan Cathedral, is characterized by a strict simple and double contrapuntal style and by pleasing melodic lines often closely related to the text. Works composed for churches outside Milan are often in a freer style, revealing inspired lyrical writing and melodic creativity. The theatrical style of his lost oratorios and opera can probably be gauged from the attractive liturgical works for solo voices. The instrumental music, partly composed before his appointment at Milan Cathedral, displays lively imagination and originality as well as a good knowledge of the instruments for which he was writing. Fioroni was admired by, among others, Burney, La Borde, Manfredini, Florimo and G.B. Martini, whose correspondence with Fioroni still survives (8 letters in I-Bc). The Mozarts met Fioroni in 1770 (Reisenotizen, 23 January to 24 March), and Leopold described him and Sammartini as ‘the best and most respected Kapellmeister of this town, upon whom all rely’ (letter of 22 December 1770). Towards the end of his life Fiorini’s influence both within and without Milan was considerable. His pupils included the composers Carlo Monza, Quirino Gasparini, Bonesi, Alessandro Rolla and Agostino Quaglia and the castrato Luigi Marchesi. Fioroni was accepted as a member of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, on 24 November 1765 and participated in selecting maestri di cappella for various Italian churches.
lost unless otherwise stated
Il padrone e l’agricoltore della vigna evangelica (orat), Milan, S Dalmazio, 1750, lib I-Ma, Mb
La Didone abbandonata (op, P. Metastasio), Milan, Ducale, carn. 1755, lib B-Bc, I-Bc, Ma, Mb, Rn, US-Wc
Cantata per musica, nella pubblica accademia del Pontificio Collegio Gallio per l’assunzione al vescovado di Como di Monsignor Giambattista Mugiasca, lib only (Como, 1766)
Cantate nel solenne ottavario che si solenniza, Milan, S Maria, 17–24 April 1768, Mb
Passione di Gesù Cristo Signore Nostro (orat), Milan, S Fedele, 9 March 1770, lib and 1 aria, S, orch, Mc
Se mai alma (cant. sacra), A, orch; Veni o sponse chare (aria), A, orch: CH-E
Piango mia cara e peno, 2 S, bc; Se il padre cadente rimira (aria), B, orch: I-Gl
in I-Md unless otherwise stated: many are autograph
Ingressae et responsoria missarum pro quibuscumque anni festivitatibus (Milan, 1766)
Masses: 2 for 2vv, orch, I-Gi(l); 3 for 4vv, org; 11 for 8vv, org; requiem, 8vv; 1 for 8vv, I-VIMvr; Missa pro defunctis, F-Pn; requiem, Ky, CH-E
Mass movts: 4 Ky for 4vv, orch; 1 Ky for 8vv, org; 1 Ky for 3vv, E; 3 Ky for 4vv, orch, I-VIMvr; 1 Ky for 5vv, VIMvr; 3 Gl for 4vv, orch; 4 Gl for 8vv, org, F-Pn; 1 Gl for 4vv, 1753, CH-ZZ, 1 Gl for 4vv, I-OS; 18 Gl for 8vv, org; 5 Gl for 4vv, CH-E; 2 Gl for 8vv, E; 1 Gl for 5vv, E; 7 Gl for 4vv, orch, VIMvr; 3 Gl for 5vv, VIMvr; 2 Gl for 8vv, VIMvr; 2 Cr for 4vv, F-Pn; 2 Cr for 8vv, Pn; 6 Cr for 8vv, 1 Cr for 8vv, CH-E; 3 Cr for 4vv, orch, E; 1 Cr for 3vv, E; 1 Cr for 4vv, orch, I-VIMvr; 1 Cr for 8vv, VIMvr
Ingressae: 36 for 4vv; 5 for 4vv; 1 for 5vv: VIMvr
Post epistolam: 1 for 4vv; 2 for 5vv
Offs: 8 for 4vv; 14 for 5vv; 2 for 6vv; 3 for 8vv; 1 for 5vv: D-Bsb; 2 for 4vv, A-Wgm; 1 for 4vv, orch, CH-ZZ; 2 for 4vv, orch, I-VIMvr
Ants: 5 for 1v; 3 for 2vv; 8 for 4vv; 1 for 5vv; 2 for 8vv; 1 for 4vv: VIMvr
Hymns: 22 for 4vv; 1 for 5vv; 20 for 8vv; 5 for 4vv: VIMvr; 1 for 4vv, CH-E; 1 for 8vv, GB-Lbl
Pss: 2 for S, org; 3 for 3vv; 2 for 4vv; 35 for 8vv; 2 for 3vv, 6 for 4vv, 5 for 8vv: CH-E; 1 for 3vv, I-VIGsa; 1 for 3vv, Bc; 2 for 2vv, BGi; 3 for 1v, 9 for 4vv, 4 for 5vv, 1 for 8vv, VIMvr
Motets: 13 for 1v; 38 for 2vv; 1 for 3vv; 14 for 8vv; 1 for 1v, 6 for 2vv, 1 for 4vv, 1 for 8vv: VIMvr; 1 for 1v, BGi; 1 for 1v, Gl; 2 for 2vv, Ma; 1 for 1v, Mz; 1 for 8vv, 1 for 4vv: A-Wn; 1 for 2vv, CH-E
Canticles: 12 Mag for 8vv, 4 Mag for 4vv, 1 Mag for 8vv: I-VIMvr; 2 Mag for 4vv, 1 Mag for 5vv, 1 Mag for 8vv: CH-E; 1 Mag for 4vv, GB-Lbl; Canticles for extreme unction, 2vv; 21 songs, CH–E
Responsories for lessons of 3 nocturns: 1 for 8vv; 1 for 4vv, 3 for 8vv: I-VIMvr; 1 for 8vv, F-Pn
Vesper music: Pars hyemalis [winter vespers], 8vv, c1750, begun by Baliani; Pars aestiva [summer vespers], 8vv, 1752; Vesperae primae pontificales, 8vv; vespers, 4vv
Lucernari: 4 for 4vv; 1 for 5vv; group of Lucernari, hymns and posthymns, 4vv: I-Md, VIMvr
8 Lits, 4vv, 1 in A-Wgm, D-MÜs, I-Ma; 2 in Md; 3 in VIMvr
Pater noster: 1 for 4vv; 1 for 5vv; 8 for 8vv, D-Bsb
Salve regina, pss, humns, motets: A-Wn, CH-E, D-Bsb, I-A, Milan, S Marco
Trio, G, vn, vc, hpd, I-Gl; trio, B, vn, vc, hpd, D-ZL: both ed. M. Dellaborra (Milan, 1992)
Sinfonia, 2 ob, 2 hn, 2 vn, va, vc, b, I-MAav
Conc., hpd, Gl, inc.
2 Sonate, D, E, hpd, BRs; 2 sonate, F, C, hpd, CH-E: all ed. M. Dellaborra (Milan, 1988)
Sonata, org, 1743, B-Bc; sonata a traversiere solo e basso, CH-ZZ, ed. M. Dellaborra (Ancona, 1987)
Andante, E, A-Wgm
V.Manfredini: Regole armoniche (Venice, 1775/R, 2/1797), xiv
C.Gervasoni: Nuova teoria di musica (Parma, 1812/R), 139
A.Schnoebelen: Padre Martini’s Collection of Letters in the Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale in Bologna (New York, 1979)
L.Inzaghi: ‘G.A. Fioroni: nuovi documenti’, NRMI, xiv (1980), 577–97
V.Gibelli: ‘Fioroni e la musica sacra a Milano nella seconda metà del secolo XVIII’, Musica teatro nazione dall’Emilia all’Europa (Modena, 1982), 253–71
M.Dellaborra: ‘G.A. Fioroni (1716–1778) e un suo motetto a otto voci’, Rivista internazionale di musica sacra, viii (1987), 412–77
M.Dellaborra: ‘Fioroni accademico e maestro alla Metropolitana tra Milano e Bologna’, Quadrivium, new ser., iii (1992), 61–91
M.Dellaborra: ‘Quatro sonate per cembalo di Giovanni Andrea Fioroni, musicista “metropolitano”’, NRMI, xxvii (1993), 457–63