Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

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Fox, Charles Warren

(b Gloversville, NY, 24 July 1904; d Gloversville, 15 Oct 1983). American musicologist. He studied at Cornell University, taking the AB in 1926. He was an assistant in psychology at the University of Illinois (1926–9) and then returned to Cornell, taking the PhD in 1933. He also worked at the universities of Heidelberg (1928) and Munich (1929). In 1932 he joined the faculty of the Eastman School of Music as an instructor in psychology; he taught musicology there from 1934. He was also editor of Notes (the quarterly journal of the Music Library Association, 1941–2) and the Journal of the American Musicological Society (1952–9) and was president of the MLA, 1954–6. He was made professor emeritus in 1971.

Fox wrote on both the psychology of music and historical musicology, particularly on the music of the Renaissance. A symposium was held in his honour at Eastman in 1972, and the papers from this conference along with some additional articles were published as a Festschrift in 1979 (Essays on Music for Charles Warren Fox, ed. J.C. Graue, Rochester, NY, 1979).


‘Non-Quartal Harmony in the Renaissance’, MQ, xxxi (1945), 33–53

‘Modern Counterpoint: a Phenomenological Approach’, Notes, vi (1948–9), 46–57

‘Barbireau and Barbingant: a Review’, JAMS, xiii (1960), 79–101


C.E. Steinzor: American Musicologists, c.1890–1945: a Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook to the Formative Period (New York, 1989), 76–81


Fox, Christopher

(b York, 10 March 1955). English composer. He attended Liverpool University (BA 1976) where he studied with Hugh Wood, following which he continued composition studies with Jonathan Harvey at Southampton University (BMus 1977). He was awarded the DPhil at York University in 1984. He has been guest composer for the Darmstadt Ferienkurse (1984–94) and the DAAD Kunstlerprogramm in Berlin (1987), and became a senior lecturer in composition at Huddersfield University (1994) and chair of the British section of the ISCM in 1988. Fox won the Performing Right Society Prize at the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival in 1981. Fox's music is particularly notable for its variety. Common factors underlying the diverse works are an emphasis upon musical processes rather than individuated gestures and a general distrust of grandiose rhetoric, striving instead for a Stravinskian dryness and clarity of line.

Fox's work combines a love of pure sound and a distancing of the self from the creative process, in a manner that recalls both Cage and Feldman, with a more European concentration upon sophistication and intricacy of form. His aesthetic world comes perhaps closest to that of the group of composers such as Walter Zimmermann, Klarenz Barlow and Gerald Barry, who worked with Stockhausen and Kagel. Like some of these composers, Fox makes use of compositional algorithms and computer programs to generate some parameters in a work.

After an initial interest in music theatre, the earlier works of Fox prioritise process to a degree that approaches formalism; subsequently, beginning with the piano piece More Light (1988), there is a greater focus upon musical material, and a wider range of influences. These include the work of Kurt Schwitters, the writings of Derek Jarman and texts from the Glorious Revolution (in A Glimpse of Sion's Glory, 1992). Fox has also collaborated frequently with poets and artists.


Music theatre: darkly, 4 pfmrs, 1981; Bewegung, 3 pfmrs, 1981

Vocal: Magnification, 1v, tape, 1978–80; American Choruses, 16vv (SATB), 2 elec org, 1979–81; ‘L’, ATTB, 1980; Alleluia, ATTBB, 1981, rev. 1997; 83 Hallelujahs, amp SATB, 1983; Missa est, Ct, T, recs, 4 viols, rebec, portative org, bells, 1983; Threnos, 1v, 1983; Ci-Gît, Mez, a fl, b cl, prep pf, va, vc, 1987; A-N-N-A Blossom-time, 1v, pf, 1988; I Sing for the Muses and Myself, 1v (ad lib), pf, 1991; A Glimpse of Sion's Glory, SSAATTBB, insts ad lib, 1992; Louisiana, 1v, pf, 1992; Trummermusik, Mez, hurdy-gurdy, 1993; Vanished Days (D. Jarman), T, pf, 1998

Chbr: Dance, a fl, cl, va, vc, 1980; Etwas Lebhaft, fl/a fl, ob, cl, hn, tpt, trbn, pf, vn, va, 1983; Reeling, cl, perc, 1983; auf dem Zweig, pic, glock, mand, 1984; Heliotropes1, 2 vn, 1985–6; A Kind of Prayer, 2 pf, 1986; Heliotropes2, tpt, trbn, hp, vib, db, 1986; Heliotropes5, 2 cl, vib, 1986; Heliotropes6, str qt, 1987; Heliotropes3, fl, ob, cl, cl+b cl, bn, hn, 1987, rev. 1990; Foreplay, fl + pic, ob, perc, pf, vc, 1988–9; stone.wind.rain.sun2, sax qt (s, a, t, b), 1989; Leap like the heart, b cl, tpt, pf, 2 perc, db, 1989; stone.wind.rain.sun4, 2 cl, 1989; The Science of Freedom, fl, vn, perc, hpd, b viol, 1990; stone.wind.rain.sun1, 4 trbn, 1990; Cl Qnt, 1992; Straight lines in broken times2, cl, vn, pf, 1992; Ob Qnt, 1995; Pastoral, fl, pf, 1996; Themes and Variations, fl, bn, tpt, pf, perc, vn, va, vc, db, 1996; The Art of Concealment, 4 perc, 1998

Solo inst: Second Eight, pf, 1978–80; Contraflow, amp b fl, 1983; Broadway Boogie, 3 eng hn, 1984; … or just after, cl, 1984; … or just after, hp, 1984; Dead Fingers Talk, perc, 1985; The Missouri Harmony, org, 1985; Heliotropes4, hn, 1986; More Light, pf, 1988; stone.wind.rain.sun3, amp a fl, 1989; Chile, gui, 1991; Straight lines in broken times1, org, 1991; lliK.relliK, pf, 1991–3; Block, prep pf, 1992; You, Us, Me (Habañera), pf, 1992; Striking Out, va, 1993; 27 Fanfares (new heaven, new earth), org, 1994; Straight lines in broken times3, vc, 1994; Paired Off, pf, 1995; Complementary Figures, pf, 1996; Prime Site, pf, 1997; how time passes, vn, 1997

El-ac: Recirculation, trbn, tape, 1982; Winds of Heaven, amp rec, elecs, 1984; 3 Constructions after Kurt Schwitters, tape, 1993; In the Key of H (with Ian Duhig), spkr, saxes, tape, 1993–4; More things in the air than are visible, pf, tape, 1993–4; Straight lines in broken times4, 2 b cl, tape, 1994; Alarmed and Dangerous, tpt, brass ens, tape, 1996; Another Reality, fl, cl, s sax, tpt, elec gui, vn, va, vc, tape, 1998


‘Après Einstein la succession minimaliste’, Contrechamps, no.6 (1986), 172–85

‘Cage – Eckhardt – Zimmermann’, Tempo, no.159 (1986), 9–15

‘Music as a Social Process: some Aspects of the Work of Christian Wolff’, Contact, no.30 (1987), 6–14

‘New Music and the Politics of Distribution’, New Music, (1988) 127–32

‘Loops, Overtones and Erhard Grosskopf’, Contact, no.33 (1988), 6–12

‘Steve Reich's “Different Trains”’, Tempo, no.172 (1990), 2–8

‘Complexity in Music’, Complexity?, ed. J. Bons (Rotterdam, 1990), 20

‘British Music at Darmstadt, 1982–1992’, Tempo, no.186 (1993), 21–5

‘Music as Fiction: a Consideration of the Work of Richard Barrett’, CMR, xiii/1, (1995), 147–57

‘Luigi Nono and the Darmstadt School’, CMR [forthcoming]


K. Potter: ‘As different as can be’, Classical Music (2 April 1983)

H. ten Hacken: ‘Orgelmuziek in de jaren tachtig’, Het Orgel, lxxxii/10 (1986), 350–56


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