(b Rome, ?1660; d ?Rome, ?1732). Italian composer. His father Antonio Maria (or Pietro Antonio) came to Rome from Pistoia in 1656 to complete his musical education with Antonio Maria Abbatini, then maestro di cappella at S Maria Maggiore. There he was reunited with two of his elder brothers, Giuseppe and Francesco Maria (both castratos), who had come to join Abbatini in 1653 and 1655. In 1654 Giuseppe made his name in his teacher's opera Dal male il bene, and he soon became one of the best sopranos in Rome. He joined the papal choir on 23 October 1662 and died in Rome on 22 July 1700. Francesco Maria also entered the papal choir, on 6 July 1667; he died suddenly on 1 March 1684. Innocenzo's father appears from time to time in the lists of extra singers recruited for festival days at S Luigi dei Francesi (where he is mentioned in 1664 as being in the service of Cardinal Antonio Barberini) and at S Maria Maggiore (where he is mentioned in 1673 as being from S Agnese in Agone, the church of the Pamphili family in the Piazza Navona). He gave up his musical career to enter the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who made him a count in 1700. Innocenzo's great-uncle Giovanni Battista Fede, an organist, was also in Rome after 1658; he died in 1678.
Innocenzo therefore had all that was necessary for a good start in his career. In 1679 he played the organ at an oratorio performance for the Santissimo Crocefisso. From 1682 he assisted his uncle Giuseppe, then acting maestro di cappella at S Giacomo degli Spagnuoli in the absence of Nicolò Stamegna. In 1683 Innocenzo applied for a position as tenor in the papal choir, but was unsuccessful. In July 1684 he was appointed maestro di cappella at S Giacomo degli Spagnuoli. Two years later, when the church lost its choir, it was thanks to Giuseppe's connections that Innocenzo was appointed to direct the Catholic choir of King James II of England. He went to London at Christmas 1686, and later followed the English royal family into exile at St Germain-en-Laye, where he became court music master and was also employed to teach Italian to the royal children James and Louise. He stayed at St Germain until 1719, and must have gone back to Italy after that. He stopped drawing the pension granted him by the Stuarts at the end of 1732. Fede's music is in the Italian style of the period, but a distinct French influence can be discerned in his instrumental pieces; his presence in France must have influenced composers who were attracted by Italian music.
Judith Bethuliae obsessae (orat), Rome, Arciconfraternita del SS Crocefisso, 1685, lost
La vittoria nella caduta (orat), Rome, 1687, lost
Laudate pueri, SATB, SATB, GB-Lbl
Arias and cantatas, F-Pn, GB-Lbl
Six sonates, fl, bc, (Amsterdam, ?1703); sonatas, fl/vn, bc, F-Pn, V
F.Lesure: Bibliographie des éditions musicales publiées par Estienne Roger et Michel-Charles Le Cène (Amsterdam, 1696–1743) (Paris, 1969), 43
R.L.Weaver: ‘Materiali per le biografie dei fratelli Melani’, RIM, xii (1977), 252–95
J.Lionnet: ‘Innocenzo Fede et la musique à la cour des Jacobites à Saint-Germain’, Revue de la Bibliothèque nationale, no.46 (1992), 14–18
J.Lionnet: ‘La musique à San Giacomo degli Spagnoli au XVIIème siècle et les archives de la Congrégation de Espagnols de Rome’, La musica a Roma attraverso le fonti d'archivio: Rome 1992, 479–505
E.T.Corp: ‘The Exiled Court of James II and James III: a Centre of Italian Music in France, 1689–1712’, JRMA, cxx (1995), 216–31
Fedé, Johannes [Sohier, Jean]
(b Douai, c1415; d ?Paris, ?1477). French composer. He was vicar of St Amé, Douai, in 1439–40. His name appears in documents of the papal chapel from November 1443 to July 1445 both as ‘Jo. Fede alias Sohier’ and as ‘Joh. Sohier alias Fede’. From 14 July 1445 until April 1446 he was in the chapel of Leonello d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara (which could be when his two sacred pieces were added to the court choirbook I-MOe α.X.1.11); and from 30 June to 23 November 1446 he was a petit vicaire at Cambrai Cathedral. In 1449–50 he was a chaplain at the Ste Chapelle in Paris, from August 1451 to February 1453 in the private chapel of Charles d'Orléans, and in 1462–3 in that of Queen Marie d'Anjou (at which time he became a canon of Saint Omer). He could well be the ‘Jehan Zoihier’ named alongside ‘Jehan du sart’ (surely the composer) as an echevin of the Duke of Burgundy in Genappe in two documents of 15 February 1454 (Brussels, Archives Générales du Royaume, Charters of Brabant); and he may be the contratenor named Fede at S Pietro, Rome, in 1466. It was almost certainly Fedé who was paid at the Ste Chapelle in Bourges during the year 1472–3 and at the royal chapel of Louis XI in 1473–4. On 12 January 1472 ‘Sohier le clerc’ became a canon of the Ste Chapelle in Paris, with payments recorded until 1477.
Wright has drawn attention to several apparent relatives at Cambrai Cathedral: Jean Fedé of Douai (1447–55) and Guillaume Fedé of Douai (1452–3) as clerks, and Girard Sohier (1447–8) as a scribe. Some of these may eventually lay claim to certain documents mentioned above.
Fedé is mentioned in at least three lists of prominent musicians among the poetry of the time: S. Greban's Complainte de la mort de Jacques Milet (1466), Crétin's Deploration sur la trepas de Jean Ockeghem (1497) and Eloy d'Amerval's Livre de la deablerie (after 1500). The first cites him alongside Ockeghem, Du Fay and Binchois alone; the others are longer lists and significant only in that they appeared many years after the presumed date of Fede's death. Here and in the sources containing his music he is referred to simply as ‘Fedé’. ‘Fich’ in the poorly copied list of composers in Hothby's Dialogus may be the same man, though identity with the composer Tik is possible.
The two Magnificat antiphons for the octave and feast of St Dominic are extant in a Ferrarese manuscript of the late 1440s (I-MOe; see AH, xxv, 1897, p.241); the discantus paraphrases the chant in both. Gaffurius mentioned the proportional notation of O lumen in his Tractatus practicabilium proportionum, c1482 (I-Bc A69, f.19). Tout a sa dame, A la longue and Mon cuer et moy are found only in the Chansonnier Nivelle de La Chaussée (F-Pn Rés.Vmc.57), though the texts of the first two are also in D-Bk 78B17 (ed. M. Löpelmann, Die Liederhandschrift des Cardinals de Rohan, Göttingen, 1923). Since in the Nivelle chansonnier the first two are erased (the only erased pieces in the source after the opening leaves; they can be read from the ultraviolet photographs in Higgins, 1984) and the last is deprived of its lower voices, presumably by the subtraction of the next gathering, it is hard to avoid concluding that the composer had in some way disgraced himself in the eyes of the book's original owner. All three songs must date from the 1450s and are absolutely characteristic of the central-French style in those years. On the other hand, L'omme banny survives in many sources and is somewhat different in style. Although it must be from about the same date, it is ascribed to him only in I-Fn Magl.XIX.176, while the more plausible ascription to Barbingant in the Mellon Chansonnier (US-NH) is corroborated in the writings of Tinctoris, Gaffurius and Giovanni del Lago.
Magne pater sancte Dominice, 2vv, ‘a faulx bourdon’, ed. in M. Kanazawa: Polyphonic Music for Vespers in the Fifteenth Century (diss., Harvard U., 1966)