Honolulu Harbor Annual Report to David and Lucille Packard Foundation


Additional Activities Scheduled and Completed



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Additional Activities Scheduled and Completed

1. Ballast Water Study


Mr. Scott Godwin from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center was hired to develop a plan sampling ballast water of commercial vessels under consultation with harbor authorities, the U. S. Coast Guard and representatives of the commercial shipping industry. The goal is to sample four to six vessels per month until the end of December 1998. Sampling began the first week in March, and as of May 15, 1998 ten vessels arriving from foreign and domestic ports have been sampled. Measurements and analyses consist of determining salinity and dissolved oxygen in the ballast water tanks, quantifying plankton by larval type, family or genus and assaying for Vibrio (cholera) bacteria that may constitute a health hazard if released in ballast water. Research protocols follow those established by the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, which has conducted ballast water studies at the Norfolk, Virginia U. S. Naval Base and at Port Valdez, Alaska. This information, combined with a profile to be developed of typical vessel traffic patterns to the area, will be used to evaluate the risk of marine nonindigenous species introductions into Oahu’s harbors through release of ballast water from commercial vessels.
2. Stream Mouth Biota
The fishes, benthic invertebrate and insect fauna of 15 stream mouths along the south and west shores of Oahu are being surveyed and assessed for their nonindigenous species component and the food resources that they provide for commercial and sport fishes. Along with an ongoing similar study being conducted in Pearl Harbor, this survey will provide the first comprehensive analysis of the proportion of nonindigenous biota in estuarine areas that has been conducted in Hawaii. To date ten of the 15 stream mouths have been sampled, and laboratory sorting and identification of sampled organism is proceeding.

3. Barbers Point Deep Draft Harbor Sampling

The sampling described in the original proposal for Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon, the Ala Wai Yacht Harbor and Kewalo Basin will also be extended to the Barber’s Point Deep Draft Harbor which was first opened to ocean going vessels in 1990. This will assure complete coverage of Oahu’s harbor areas and allow comparisons of species introductions in this recently established harbor with harbor areas that have been utilized for up to 200 years.




  • Summary and Conclusions

All activities proposed for this project in the original proposal submitted to the Packard Foundation have been completed according to schedule. Moreover, a matching contribution, amounting to more than twice the original Packard funds, has enabled the establishment of additional important tasks such as a ballast water monitoring program, stream mouth sampling and sampling at the Barbers Point Deep Draft Harbor. These matching funds have already been committed to the project for its second year. Continuation of the second year of Packard Foundation funding will enable the successful completion of this important source of information for managing Hawaii’s nearshore marine environment.



Figure 1. Locations of sampling stations in Honolulu Harbor

Appendix A


Annotated Bibliographies for Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon,

Ala Wai Yacht Harbor, and Kewalo Basin



Honolulu Harbor Annotated Bibliography

AECOS (1979). Oahu Coral Reef Inventory. Part A , Atlas, and Part B, Sectional Map Descriptions, Rep. No. 0072. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Honolulu.

Basic descriptive resource for Honolulu Harbor and all Oahu nearshore marine environments, containing extensive annotated references.

AECOS (1982). Marine environmental baseline study in support of the development plan and environmental impact statement for Piers 12 to 15 in Honolulu Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, Rep. No. AECOS 365. Austin, Tsutsumi & Assoc. Inc., Honolulu.

Literature search and surveys for evaluating the potential impact of dock construction at Piers 12-15. Measurements made of water turbidity and observation of dominant benthic and fish organisms made in Nov. 1982.

AECOS (1988). Biological reconnaissance survey and environmental assessment for Pier 1 modifications, Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii, Rep. No. AECOS 550, Honolulu.

Brief environmental survey made for alteration of docks at Pier 1 describes most apparent benthic and fish organisms in area and along basalt boulders at Fort Armstrong entrance to harbor.

AECOS (1992). Water quality survey for the Marine Education and Training Center at Sand Island, Rep. No. AECOS 656. Wilson Okimoto & Assoc., Honolulu.

Review of water quality and sediment pollutant information for Honolulu Harbor in general and METC site on the west end of Sand Island near the bascule bridge.

Agassiz, A. (1889). The coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 17, 122-170.

Early description of Honolulu Harbor entrance as a channel kept open by Nuuanu River low and muddy character of the bottom and channel.

Allardt, C. E. (1890). Special report on the dredging of the Honolulu Bar, Honolulu.

Proposal for dredging sandbar at entrance to Honolulu Harbor from a minimum low tide depth of 20 feet to a uniform 30 feet deep. Channel to be 200 feet wide and require removal of approximately 60,000 cu. yds. Mentioned that about 61,000 cu. yds. of mud were removed from the harbor in 1884-85 and deposited on the shore near the New Market vicinity of Alakea St. Map shows harbor configuration and depths in 1890.

Aloha Towers Marine Center (1980). A proposal from the Aloha Maritime Center to the estate of James Campbell for sponsorship of a maritime museum at Aloha Tower, Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii, 7 p.

Description of planned changes in the Aloha Tower complex to make it the focus of downtown development.

Aloha Towers Assoc. (1990). The plan for the new harbor. The Associates, Honolulu.

Brochure describing planned changes in the Aloha Tower complex from 1990 to 1995

Amicus (1854). Untitled. In The Polynesian , Honolulu, Jan. 21, 1954

Anonymous letter to the newspaper criticizing the proposed dredging and filling of Honolulu waterfront and selling to highest bidders, and questioning the estimated total cost of the project.

Anon. (1826). The South Eastern Part of the Town of Hanarura at Oahu. BPBM Archives CP21998, CP 29158

View of grass houses on Honolulu Harbor shoreline looking toward Diamond Head and Palace of Kamehameha

Anon. (1843). Map of Honolulu City, Honolulu, In Existing Urban Resources and Facilities-Honolulu (1939).

Map showing Honolulu and its waterfront with principal buildings in 1843.

Anon. (1854). Proposed improvement of government property. In The Polynesian, Honolulu, Jan. 14, 1854.

Description of proposed project to dredge and fill water front area in front of Honolulu Fort to accommodate berths for shipping and sell property created by filling to highest bidders.

Anon. (1854). The water lots. In The Polynesian , Honolulu, Jan. 28, 1854

Rebuttal to criticism by Amicus of proposed dredging and filling of Honolulu shoreline to create additional wharfage and reclaimed land to be sold to highest bidder, the primary purpose of the project to provide needed docking area for the business of the port.

Anon. (1856). Untitled. In The Polynesian, Honolulu, Oct. 18, 1856.

Description of progress of dredging of Honolulu Harbor waterfront between Market and Custom House wharves, where depth had been increased an average of five feet.

Anon. (1856). Untitled. In The Polynesian, Honolulu, Nov. 29, 1856.

Description of progress of dredging of Honolulu Harbor waterfront at Robinson's wharf, where depth had been increased to 23 feet.

Anon. (1857). Untitled. In The Polynesian, Honolulu, Jan. 17, 1857.

Description of driving of piles along Robinson's Wharf, and beginning of transfer of coral blocks from the Honolulu Fort to be used in constructing the harbor retaining walls, while dredged harbor mud supplying the landfill material. “What a revolution among the animacules!”

Anon. (1862). Plan of Honolulu, BPBM Archives H36057.

Map showing Honolulu waterfront with principal buildings and shoreline of landfilled esplanade.

Anon. (1878). Discovery of Honolulu Harbor. In Hawaiian Almanac Annual for 1878 , Vol. 4, p. 24. Thrum and Oat.

Brief description of discovery of Honolulu Harbor by Capt. Brown commanding English ship SS Butterworth and its tender Jackall in 1794, who called the harbor Fairhaven. Harbor first entered by the Jackall and the Prince Le Boo on Nov. 21, 1794.

Anon. (1883). The marine railway finished and in good working order. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, Jan. 2 1883, p. 2.

Description of first use of newly completed marine railway at Pier 2, constructed at cost of $100,000 to Hawaiian government and leased to Samuel Wilder for $5000/year.

Anon. (1884). Shipping notes. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, Jan 17, 1884, p. 2.

Note of dredging activity at Likelike wharf.

Anon. (1891). Map of Honolulu City, Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Annual, Honolulu.

Map showing Honolulu waterfront with principal buildings.

Anon. (1891). Harbor dredging. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, Nov. 12, 1891, p. 3.

Notice of dredging to begin in Jan. 1892 in Honolulu Harbor, first on channel bar, then interior. All areas to be dredged to 30 feet depth.

Anon. (1892). Honolulu Harbor improvements, Vol. 19, p. 77-81. Press Publishing, Hawaiian Almanac Annual for 1893.

Brief description of discovery of Honolulu Harbor by Capt. Brown of the English ship SS Butterworth and its tender Jackall in 1794, who called the harbor Fairhaven. First survey of harbor by Capt. Broughton in 1796, later surveys by Kotzebue in 1816 and Malden in 1825. Article describes dredging of harbor entrance channel for a distance of 1100 feet long by 200 feet wide, work beginning in June 1892. 67,000 cu yds of dredge material removed and place on shoreline east of harbor entrance

Anon. (1892). The dredger narrowly escapes destruction last evening. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, May 4, 1892, p. 3.

Description of near loss of dredger while anchored on Waikiki side of Honolulu Harbor entrance for dredging entrance sand bar. Dredger platform barge slipped anchors and came to rest on Ewa side of channel on reef.

Anon. (1892). Work on the bar. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser Honolulu, Sep. 20, 1892, p. 3.

Note of completion of dredging the sand bar at entrance of Honolulu Harbor to 30 feet depth.

Anon. (1892). Dredging the Honolulu Harbor bar. In Scientific American , No. 875, p. 244-225, New York.

Full description of Honolulu Harbor project for dredging entrance and harbor to 30 feet, removing an estimated 60,000 cu. yds from entrance and 640,000 from harbor basin. Work on entrance bar commenced on Apr. 7, 1892 and was essentially complete by end of August,, with minor additional dredging to be completed in September to bring entrance depth to an unobstructed 30 feet.

Anon. (1892). The harbor bar. The Scientific American writes an article about it. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, Oct. 27, 1892, p. 4.

Reprint of Oct. 8, 1892 Scientific American article about dredging of Honolulu Harbor entrance channel and basin.

Anon. (1892). The hydraulic dredger. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, Oct. 30, 1892.

Description and diagram of the dredger built by Risdon Iron Works of San Francisco for dredging the Honolulu Harbor entrance bar and basin.

Anon. (1894). Honolulu. In J. D. Spreckels & Bros, North Pacific Coast Ports, p 68-76.

Instructions and information for shipmasters entering Honolulu Harbor.

Anon. (1895). Our golden gate. In Paradise of the Pacific , Vol. 8, p. 19.

Brief description of Honolulu Harbor, and mention that 315 foreign vessels utilized harbor in 1893.

Anon. (1897). Public works and improvements. , Vol. 23, p. 126. Press Publishing, Hawaiian Almanac Annual for 1897.

Description of changing course of Nuuanu stream course at harbor entrance and deepening of harbor at eastern end of the esplanade.

Anon. (1897). On the water front. In Paradise of the Pacific , Vol. 10, p. 115.

Photo of Honolulu Harbor dock facing mountains.

Anon. (1898). Public works and improvements. , Vol. 24, p. 158. Press Publishing, Hawaiian Almanac Annual for 1898.

Progress report on changing course of Nuuanu stream course at harbor entrance and deepening of harbor at eastern end of the esplanade.

Anon. (1898). Honolulu Harbor-Crossroads of the Pacific. In Paradise of the Pacific , Vol. 11, p. 17-18.

Description of harbor channel dimensions, dredging date and material removed and shoreline before building of the Esplanade. First ocean steamer to utilize new harbor channel after dredging was the Oceanic in May, 1893

Anon. (1899). Wharf and wave. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser , p. 8, Honolulu.

Note of deployment of hydraulic dredger at foot of Richards St. for excavation of new slips, dredged spoils to be deposited on land Waikiki of the public market.

Anon. (1899). The new harbor. Official description of the boundaries. In Pacific Commercial Advertiser , p. 7, Honolulu.

Detailed verbal description of Honolulu Harbor boundaries as shown on recently issued map from the War Department.

Anon. (1900). Public improvements. , Vol. 26, p. 161-62. Press Publishing, Hawaiian Almanac Annual for 1900.

Progress report on deepening of harbor and wharf extension and project proposed to link harbor with Kalihi.

Anon. (1900). Extension of the harbor. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 13, p. 3.

Proposal that Honolulu Harbor expansion should be done by extending of the Nuuanu stream rather than by dredging shallow areas of the harbor basin

Anon. (1902). Honolulu Harbor map. , Vol. 15, p. 12. Paradise of the Pacific, Honolulu.

Map of Honolulu Harbor at turn of the century

Anon. (1903). Honolulu Harbor. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 16, p. 10-11.

Descriptions of locations of ship docking areas for various companies and plans to increase wharfage in six months.

Anon. (1904). Plans for a new Alakea dock. In Hawaiian Star, July 6, 1904, p. 7, Honolulu.

Description of new docks and slip to be built at base of Alakea St. for Pacific Mail and other steamers. Construction to include widening of adjacent street, building or modification of two wharves and dredging basin to 34 feet.

Anon. (1905). First steps in improvement of harbor started. In Hawaiian Star, May 16, 1905, p. 1, Honolulu.

Description of plans for widening Honolulu Harbor entrance channel 150 feet and moving of entrance lighthouse 400 feet seaward.

Anon. (1905). Work commences on Alakea Dock. In Hawaiian Star, July 8, 1905, p. 1, Honolulu.

Description of equipment and dredging operations for construction of Alakea dock and slips for docking large ocean liners.

Anon. (1905). Dredger Pacific hard at work. In Hawaiian Star, Nov. 14, 1905, p. 5, Honolulu.

Description of progress of dredging of Alakea St. slip and deposition of dredge spoils inside the naval sea wall makai of the Immigration Station, which had been raised two feet by this deposition.

Anon. (1906). Honolulu marine railway. In Pacific Commercial Advertise, July 2, 1906, p. 69, Honolulu.

Brief history of the development of the Honolulu marine railway built in 1882 and its early lessees and operators.

Anon. (1906). Harbor dredging finished. In Hawaiian Star, Aug. 7, 1906, p. 8, Honolulu.

Note of completion of harbor dredging and filling in of some of Quarantine Island.

Anon. (1907). Shipping sugar. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 20, p. 16-17.

Picture of docking area for Oahu Land and Railway.

Anon. (1907). Honolulu's harbor light. In Paradise of the Pacific , Vol. 20, p. 12-13.

Picture and description of Honolulu Harbor's old light house, which stood at the Ewa side of the entrance channel.

Anon. (1907). Alakea wharf. Ready for delivery next week with a prospect of pilikia. In Hawaiian Star,Nov. 12, 1907, p. 8, Honolulu.

Notice of completion of construction of Alakea St. wharf, to be used for docking large ocean liners.

Anon. (1907). Alakea wharf accepted today. In Hawaiian Star, Dec. 7, 1907, p. 1, Honolulu.

Completion and transfer of Alakea St. wharf to Hawaiian Territory, built at cost of $91,000 and eight months to construct.

Anon. (1911). No title, Hawaiian Almanac Annual, Vol. 35., Press Publishing, Honolulu.

Minimum depth at Honolulu Harbor channel entrance given as 33 feet and general depth in harbor as 35 feet.

Anon. (1914). Honolulu Harbor extension plans. Hawaiian Almanac Annual, Vol. 39, p. 110-120. Press Publishing, Honolulu.

Description of proposed dredging of the of a 600 foot long 400 foot wide channel from Kalihi basin to Palama Basin to increase harbor area above the existing 97 acres.

Anon. (1920). Harbor Extension. Hawaiian Almanac Annual, Vol. 44, p. 149. Press Publishing.

Description of proposed harbor plan that would add ten additional large piers on the west side of the harbor which would provide wharfage for a total of 52 vessels. However project was turned down.

Anon. (1922). Health Board wants fishing sampans moved. In Hawaiian Star Bulletin, Dec. 21, 1922, p. 2, Honolulu.

Request by Board of Health to move fishing boats to not yet completed Kewalo Basin due to concern that polluted water from Nuuanu Stream (characterized as simply an open sewer ) would contaminate fish catches when used for washing down boat decks and compartments.

Anon. (1922). Harbor board would develop Kewalo Basin. In Hawaiian Star Bulletin, Dec. 12, 1922, p. 1, Honolulu.

Description of planned acquisition of land and budgeting of $300,000 of public funds to dredge and construct Kawalo basin for docking of fishing sampans and lumber cargoes, which then required wharfages in Honolulu Harbor.

Anon. (1923). Untitled Photo. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 36, p. 92.

Aerial view of Honolulu Harbor before Kalihi entrance channel was dredged

Anon. (1924). Harbor Extension. , Hawaiian Almanac Annual, Vol. 48, p. 161. Press Publishing, Honolulu.

Bids received at the end of 1922 for 800 foot wide, 35 foot deep Kalihi channel extension. When completed this project would give an extended wharfage of over 1000 feet.

Anon. (1924). Untitled Photo. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 37, p. 120.

View toward Sand Island with HECO's Honolulu Generating Station in foreground and a four masted ship at Pier 1 area.

Anon. (1925). Untitled Photos. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 38, p. 5.

Aerial view of harbor entrance channel before it was increased by dredge spoils from Kalihi channel, and a view of the harbor from a ship leaving the main channel.

Anon. (1927). Untitled Photos. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 40, p. 8-9.

Photo of Honolulu Harbor looking toward railway docks, and view along docks showing sailing ships as they appeared in 1900.

Anon. (1927). Untitled Photo. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 40, p. 9.

Aerial view toward Sand Island showing entire harbor before dredging of Kalihi Channel and enlargement of Sand Island.

Anon. (1927). Untitled Photos. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 40, p. 74.

Aerial view of Honolulu Harbor looking toward mountain, and similar view from the water.

Anon. (1928). Kalihi Basin entered. , Vol. 52, p. 129. Press Publishing, Hawaiian Almanac Annual.

First large craft entered new Kalihi Basin on June 27, 1927

Anon. (1929). King Kalakaua's famous boathouse in Honolulu Harbor. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 42, p. 26.

Photo of boathouse taken in Nov. 1885 with view toward mountains.

Anon. (1933). Untitled Photo. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 46, p. 49.

Aerial view of west section of the harbor showing tip of Sand Island and new Kalihi Channel.

Anon. (1936). The old Honolulu Fort. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 48, p. 43-49.

Description of the building of the Honolulu Fort in 1816, its history until its destruction in 1857 and use of its material for filling in the waterfront and making seawalls.

Anon. (1938). Plan of Honolulu Harbor, 1818. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 50, p. 8.

Copy of earliest existing chart of Honolulu Harbor, made by Tabulevitch of the Russian sloop Kamschtaka in 1818, showing harbor entrance and various identified buildings and docks.

Anon. (1938). The Broughton survey of Honolulu Harbor, 1796. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 50, p. 14.

Short description of the first survey of Honolulu Harbor by Capt. Broughton of the HMS Providence in Feb. 1796, and its subsequent loss, probably in a shipwreck off Formosa in 1797.

Anon. (1950). The ports of Hawaii. Propeller Club of the U. S., Honolulu.

Brief description of events for Honolulu Harbor from its discovery in the 1890s to 1950

Anon. (1967). The ports of Oahu. Honolulu Propeller Club, Honolulu.

Condensed history and description of Honolulu Harbor as of 1967.

Anon. (1978). A study to determine the feasibility of providing shore protection to portions of Sand Island, Oahu, Hawaii, . U. S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu.

Description and anticipated environmental impacts of repairing and maintaining seawall to prevent further erosion along 2615 ft length of shoreline along Sand Island Park on east side of Sand Island.

Anon. (1985). Honolulu Harbor educational resource packet. Univ. Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Serv., Honolulu.

Concise history of Honolulu Harbor (duplication of 1967 Ports of Honolulu article for the Propeller Club)

Baker, R. J. (1950). Sketches and Maps of Old Honolulu, R. J. Baker, Honolulu.

Collection of copies of artists sketches and maps of Honolulu, including harbor area from pre-20th century.

Beechert, E. D. (1991). Honolulu, Crossroads of the Pacific. 1st ed., Univ. South Carolina Press, Columbia, S. C.

Detailed history of events and uses of Honolulu Harbor and its central importance in the economy of Hawaii.

Board of Engineers, f. R. a. H. (1926). The port of Honolulu, Hawaii. In The ports of the territory of Hawaii , p. 5-79. U. S. War Department, Washington, D. C.

Detailed description, regulations and practical information for mariners concerning Honolulu Harbor in 1926.

Brock, R. E. (1991, 1992) An analysis of benthic communities in the zone of mixing for the Honolulu and Kahului Generating Stations. Environmental Department, Hawaiian Electric Co. Honolulu.

Results of 1991 and 1992 monitoring surveys in the discharge basin of the Honolulu Power Station and along the east shore of Sand Island.

Brock, R. E. (1993, 1994, 1995, 1997) An analysis of benthic communities in the zone of mixing for the Honolulu and Kahului Generating Stations. Environmental Department, Hawaiian Electric Co. Honolulu.

Results of 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1997 monitoring surveys in the discharge basin of the Honolulu Power Station and along the east shore of Sand Island.

Burgess, G. H. (1857). Port of Honolulu. View of Honolulu waterfront looking mauka at approx. Nuuanu St. BPBM Archives CP29209, CP76782.

Cartwright, B. (1923). The first discovery of Honolulu Harbor. Hawaii Historical Society 31st Report, Honolulu.

Detailed account of the discovery of Honolulu Harbor in December 1786 by Mr. Hayward of the the King George under command of Captain Nathaniel Portlock. An alternative opinion by Professor Alaxander, the historian, of its first entry by a foreign vessel in February, 1794 by Captain Brown in the schooner Jackal and Captain Gordon in the sloop Prince Lee Boo. They called the harbor Fair Haven, which may be a rough translation of the Hawaiian name Honoonoono.

Cartwright, B. (1925). Honolulu in 1809-10. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 38, p. 59-66.

Description of early Honolulu, known as Kou, and its earliest European inhabitants who came around or before 1795. Drawing of shoreline showing beach and Nuuanu Stream mouth with grass huts and palm trees in background. Mentions first survey of Harbor in 1796 by Captain Broughton of British Navy.

Cartwright, B. (1937). Punia-iki - A legend of Honolulu. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 49, p. 25-27.

Hawaiian Legends associated with district of Kou, print showing Honolulu Harbor near fishpond and Nuuanu Stream from anchorage in 1828 and map of harbor made by Duperrey in 1819.

Cartwright, B. (1938). Old Honolulu. In Paradise of the Pacific, Vol. 50, p. 33-34.

Description of earliest European visitors to Honolulu (Fairhaven) and Honolulu Harbor and the earliest charts made.

Choris, L. (1822). Vue du port hanarourou. BPBM Archives CP101756.

View of Honololu Harbor showing Old Fort and grass housed to right

Choris, L. (1822). Port d'hanorourou. BPBM Archives CP101765.

View of grass houses on Honolulu Harbor shoreline looking toward harbor entrance

Cox, D., and Gordon, G., Jr. (1970). Estuarine pollution in the State of Hawaii. Vol. 1. Statewide survey. Tech. Report No. 31. Water Resources Research Center, Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu.

General description of Honolulu Harbor water resources, stream flow and pollution sources in early 1970's. Median coliform counts at that time were only 6 MPN/100 for six years of sampling at harbor entrance, but soared to 125,000 MPN/100 in the Sand Island Channel, and to 20 million MPN/100 in the Kapalama Canal. Fish kills affecting up to 100,000 fish had occurred in the Kapalama Canal in May, 1963, July, 1965, and September, 1966.

Department of Account. & Gen. Serv. (1972). Draft environmental impact statement for Marine Expeditionary Center, Snug Harbor, Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii,, Honolulu.

Description of the development proposed for the Marine Expeditionary Center` to be located at Piers 43-46 in Honolulu Harbor and very brief coverage of the anticipated environmental effects of the proposed development

Emmert, P. (1862). Honolulu Harbor. In Hopkins, H., Hawaii: The Past, Present and Future of its Island Kingdom.

View of Honolulu waterfront looking mauka at approx. Fort St. and showing west end of esplanade.

Environmental Consultants Inc., and Hawaiian Electric Company Inc. (1974). The marine biological impact of the Honolulu Power Plant. A summary of the 1974 investigations. Hawaiian Electric Environmental Department, Honolulu.

Description of third and final year of monitoring of marine environmental effects of discharge from Honolulu Power Plant. Provides data for water temperatures, biomass of zooplankton, phytoplankton species composition, and species composition and growth of resident fish species.

Fitzpatrick, G. L. (1947). The Early Mapping of Hawai'i. Volume I. Palpal'aina, Editions Limited, Honolulu.

Compilation of all of early maps of Honolulu Harbor and annotations, beginning with original 1816 chart of the harbor by Otto von Kotzebue. Also, description of first use of the harbor and its probable discovery by William Brown and Captain Gordon of the ships Jackal and Prince Lee Boo in November, 1793, at its probable first survey by William Broughton in 1796. However, survey results have never been located.

Harbors Division, H. D. (1986). 2010 Master plan for Honolulu Harbor. Hawaii State Dep. Transportation and Maritime Affairs Committee, Hawaii Chamber of Commerce, Honolulu.

Descriptions of changes in Honolulu Harbor from 1995 plan that had been completed to date, and recommendation for changes to be enacted in the future.

Honolulu, C. o. C. (1914). Extension of Honolulu Harbor to Kapalama Basin. U. S. Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, Honolulu.

Statement in support of developing Honolulu Harbor to meet increases in shipping traffic expected from opening of Panama Canal.

Judd, W. F. (1975). Palaces and Forts of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Pacific Books, Palo Alto.

Detailed description of the construction, structure, use and removal of the Honolulu Fort, which existed from 1816 to 1857.

Lacayo Planning Inc. (1993). Pier 38 Master Plan, . Hawaii State Dep. Bus., Econ. Dev & Tourism, Honolulu.

Master plan of redevelopment of Pier 38 area for utilization as University marine research complex and docking facilities.

Larrison, G. K. (1941). Background and data on activities pertaining to the development of Honolulu Harbor. Maritime Affairs Committee of Honolulu Chamber of Commerce, Honolulu.

Brief history of dredging activities from 1898 to 1941, ownership of piers in 1914 and subsequent construction, and dredging activities authorized by the Board of Engineers for 1941 and following.

Llewellyn, A. D. (1947). Honolulu Harbor. In The Military Engineer, Vol. 39, p. 51-55.

Detailed account of dredging and filling operations in Honolulu Harbor from first widening of entrance channel in 1889 to seaplane runways in Keehi Lagoon during WW II

McCain, J. C., and Peck, J. M. J. (1972). The marine biological impact of the Honolulu Power Plant. A summary of the 1972 investigations. Hawaiian Electric Environmental Department, Honolulu.

Description of first years monitoring of marine environmental effects of discharge from Honolulu Power Plant. Conclusions not specific but provides data for water temperatures, biomass of zooplankton, benthic fouling and fish species found and tissue residues of heavy metals.

McCain, J. C., and., Coles S L. (1973). The marine biological impact of the Honolulu Power Plant. Hawaiian Electric Environmental Department, Honolulu. Description of second year’s monitoring of marine environmental effects of discharge from Honolulu Power Plant. Provides substantial data for water temperatures, biomass of zooplankton, phytoplankton species composition, coral abundance and size distributions in intake and discharge basins, fish species and growth rates and tissue residues of heavy metals.

McCain, J. C., Coles S L. and Peck, J. M. (1975). The marine biological impact of the Honolulu Power Plant. Rep. No. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-76-01. Univ. Hawaii Sea Grant, Honolulu.

Duplication of 1973 HECO report describing second years monitoring of marine environmental effects of discharge from Honolulu Power Plant.

Mellen, G. W. (1938). Ships come in. The Sales Builder 11:2-15.

Rambling account of Hawaii's maritime history, with excerpts on first arrivals in Honolulu Harbor of various type of craft, marine related businesses and changes in Harbor itself.

Metcalf, T. (1847). Land Grants and Awards, Honolulu.

Map showing Honolulu and its waterfront with ownership of buildings and property.

Oceanit Laboratories Inc. (1990). Marine environmental assessment for the waterfront at Aloha Tower. Hawaii State Aloha Tower Development Corp., Honolulu.

Marine environmental survey results and assessment of impact for redevelopment of Aloha tower waterfront complex (Piers 5-14). Additional data given for Kapalama and Kalihi Channels. Stated “Water quality results indicated that the harbor is in relatively good condition and falls with State DOH water quality standards. Results from marine and benthic habitat investigations show that marine life is neither abundant nor diverse in most areas of Honolulu Harbor. There are no rare, endangered or threatened species identified within or near the project area... A major area of abundant sea life is the sea wall extending from the base of Pier 8 (electric plant inlet) to Pier 7 (electric plant outlet) and around the rock revetment of Piers 5 and 6.”

Perkins, R. W. (1917). Six mile view of Honolulu from busy harbor to Diamond Head, Vol. 30, p. 16-17. Paradise of the Pacific, Honolulu.

Picture of Honolulu Harbor's waterfront

Pitzer, P. (1980). New life for Aloha Tower. In Honolulu, p. 43-48.

Description of Hawaii Maritime Museum originally located in the Aloha Tower but later moved to Pier 7.

Pollack, J. B. (1928). Fringing and fossil coral reefs of Oahu. B. P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 55, 1-56.

Description of process of Honolulu Harbor formation and of dredged and filled areas for Sand Island and Kalihi Basin that existed to date.

Rockwood, P. (1957). Honolulu in 1810. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

Detailed map and notes indicating sites of residences and structures in Honolulu and along its waterfront in 1810.

Rush, B. F. (1957). History of construction and development of Honolulu Harbor. Board of Harbor commissioners, Honolulu.

Detailed history of Honolulu Harbor and Kewalo Basin, with extensive information on dates of dock and pier development and filling operations.

Sabin, W. F. (1902). Rotten Row. Paradise of the Pacific 15, 58-59.

Description of final resting place (location unspecified) in Honolulu Harbor for derelict ships and some of their descriptions

Sakai, K. T. (1968). Investigation of Harbor Disturbances in Honolulu Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. M. S., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Analysis of factors responsible for disturbances of moored ships at Piers 1, 2, (most severe) and Piers 8, 9 and 10. Possible causes were southern swells with periods of 14 to 22 sec. and Kona storms generating long period waves

Scott, E. B. (1968). A wife poisoner swung from the gallows. . SierraTahoe Publishing. A Saga of the Sandwich Islands.

Drawing showing walls of Honolulu Fort looking seaward, and narrative describing its building in 1816 and history, including its use as site for Hawaii's first hanging, and its demolition in 1857.

Shell Oil Co. (1972). Final environmental statement administrative action for Project A-61002 Pipeline-Honolulu Harbor to International Airport Storage Terminal-Sand island Access Road. Hawaii State Department of Transportation, Honolulu.

Evaluation of the environmental impact of Shell Oil storage site at Sand Island Access Road and approximately 2.8 miles of pipeline easements between Honolulu Harbor and Honolulu International Airport.

Simpson, A. (1843). Map of the city of Honolulu. The Saga of the Sandwich Islands, Honolulu.

Map published on August 25, 1843 showing listing of business houses, residences and Honolulu Fort.

Stangenwald, H. (1854). Tower, cupola and bell. The Saga of the Sandwich Islands, Honolulu.

Earliest known photo of Honolulu taken in 1854 from the tower of Kawaihao Church and looking Ewa, showing Oahu Charity School, Sumner’s Island and the western tip of Quarantine Island in Honolulu Harbor.

Stewart, C. H. (1936). Honolulu Harbor. Military Engineer 28, 22-28.

Detailed history of Honolulu Harbor and its development with information of dredging dates and quantities.

Stroup, E. (1959). The ports of Oahu. Honolulu Propeller Club, Honolulu.

Brief history and detailed description of Honolulu Harbor, especially Piers 39-40, at time of statehood.

Thomas, W. J. (1979). Aspects of the Micro-community Associated with Telesteo riisei, an Introduced Alcyonarian Species. M. S., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu.

A three year study of the introduced shallow-water octocoral Telesteo riisei and its associated micro-community in Honolulu Harbor revealed a fairly stable community, in terms of biomass, for the first two and a half years, with seasonal fluctuations of species composition and numbers of species and individuals in this community.

Towill, R. M. (1982). Revised environmental impact statement for commercial fishing berthing area pier 16, Honolulu Harbor, Oahu. Hawaii Department of Transportation, Honolulu.

EIS prepared for extension of Piers 16 and 17 for additional fishing boat docking.

U. S. Army, Corps of Eng. (1958). General design for modification of Honolulu Harbor. U. S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu, Honolulu.

Design memorandum describing dredging to be done to complete the Kalihi Channel to Kapalama Basin originally began pre-WW II but discontinued toward the end of the war. Renewed project provided for an entrance channel 40 ft deep 500 ft wide and 400 ft long

U. S. Army, Corps of Eng. (1963). Review report on survey of Honolulu Harbor and Barbers Point Harbor for navigation, Oahu, Hawaii. U. S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu, Honolulu.

Statement authorizing the modification of Honolulu Harbor to deepen entrance channel and interior areas by 5 feet and to widen interior connecting channel by 60 feet, and to construct supplementary deep draft harbor at Barbers Point.

U. S. Army, Corps of Eng. (1976). Final environmental impact statement, Honolulu Harbor. U. S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu, Honolulu.

Environmental impact statement describing the plan and estimated impacts of dredging main entrance channel of Honolulu Harbor to 45 ft, dredging basins and Kapalama Channel to 40 ft, , and widening Kapalama channel by 60 ft for a distance of 3100 ft. Dredged material of about 1.3 million cu. yds. to be disposed of at deep ocean disposal site.

U. S. Army, Corps of Eng. (1976). Honolulu Harbor Phase I general design memorandum plan formulation. U. S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu, Honolulu.

Presents the results of the Phase I post-authorization studies for modification of Honolulu Harbor, including dredging main entrance channel of Honolulu Harbor to 45 ft,, dredging basins and Kapalama Channel to 40 ft, , and widening Kapalama channel by 60 ft for a distance of 3100 ft. Dredged material of about 1.3 million cu. yds. to be disposed of at deep ocean disposal site.

U. S. Army, Corps of Eng. (1977). Honolulu Harbor Design memorandum No. 1. Phase II project design. U. S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu, Honolulu.

Provides details of the plan of improvement presented in the plan formulation study and summarized in the Phase I post-authorization studies for modification of Honolulu Harbor, including dredging main entrance channel of Honolulu Harbor to 45 ft,, dredging basins and Kapalama Channel to 40 ft, , and widening Kapalama channel by 60 ft for a distance of 3100 ft. Dredged material of about 1.3 million cu. yds. to be disposed of at deep ocean disposal site.

Ultramar, C. W. L. (1968). Water quality study Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon and nearshore waters from Kewalo Basin to Ahua Point, . Hawaii State Department of Health, Honolulu.

Results of water quality sampling in vicinity of Honolulu Harbor prior to removal of Sand Island sewage outfall offshore.

United States Foreign Trade Board (1974). Final environmental impact statement. U. S. Dep. Commerce, Washington, D. C.

Description of proposed development and environmental impacts of Hawaii Independent Refinery transshipment terminal in Honolulu Harbor on Sand Island Access Road.

Waldman, A. (1982). Honolulu, port of perpetual change. In Honolulu , p. 62-65.

Brief historical excerpts for Honolulu Harbor from pre-European contact to 1982.

Walsh, W. (1898). Honolulu Harbor. In Paradise of the Pacific , Vol. 11, p. 17-18.

Description of harbor with details on area (73 acres) and channel dimensions (1200 ft long, 200 ft wide, 30 ft deep) at that time. First ship to enter after the dredging of the deep channel was the Oceanic, which entered on May 9, 1893. Description of the Esplanade, built by filling sand behind the walls of the former fort, which was torn down in the 1850s and the walls used to build a retaining wall at the edge of the harbor . Further work to expand wharfage mentioned.

Waterfront, Design Commission (1976). A waterfront design concept for Honolulu Harbor. Downtown Improvement Association, Honolulu.

Description of planned changes in the Aloha Tower complex to make it the focus of downtown development.

Watson, L. J. (1933). A comprehensive survey of the harbor system of Honolulu. Special Committee on Honolulu Harbor Development , Honolulu Chamber of Commerce, Honolulu.

List and details of eight projects proposed to develop Honolulu Harbor as of 1933, including increasing main channel width and depth, dredging direct channel from Kapalama Basin to the sea, enlarging Kapalama Basin, filling areas of Kapalama, Sand Island and Fort Armstrong and improving Kewalo Basin entrance.

Webster, W. (1854). Untitled. In The Polynesian, Mar. 20, 1854, Honolulu.

Letter of rebuttal by the designing engineer of the project to dredge and fill the Honolulu waterfront to the anonymous critic Amicus, regarding estimated costs of construction and completion of the project.

Webster, W. (1854). The water lots again. In The Polynesian, Feb. 4, 1854, Honolulu.

Description by the designing engineer of the project to dredge and fill the Honolulu waterfront detailing dimensions of property to be created by filling and an itemized estimate of the costs of the project, based on the availability of 1500 cu. yds. of coral blocks from the to be dismantled Honolulu Fort.

Wendt, D. (1989). Teachers resource book for Honolulu Harbor and shoreline cruises, Rep. No. UNIH-SEAGRANT-MR-89-03. Univ. Hawaii SeaGrant, Honolulu.

Map copies and descriptions of Honolulu's waterfront development from 1840 to 1957.

Wilson Okimoto & Assoc. (1969). Honolulu Harbor 1968. A planning and engineering guide for the development of the Honolulu waterfront. Harbors Division, State of Hawaii Dep. Transportation, Honolulu.

Detailed history of pier development and ownership, maps indicating topography, locations and ownership of piers in 1968.

Wilson Okimoto & Assoc. (1991). EIS and preparation notice for the Marine Education and Training Center and public boat launch facility, Sand Island, Oahu. Honolulu Waterfront Project, State of Hawaii Dep. Bus. Econ. Dev. and Tourism, Honolulu.

Description and anticipated environmental impacts of development of Marine Education and Training Center and public boat launch facility at west end of Sand Island.




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