THE MAJOR MEDICI IN REAISSANCE ITALY * for major art patrons *Cosimo de' Medici (Cosimo the Elder), 1389-1464, grandfather of Lorenzo the Magnificent and Giuliano de' Medici (assassinated in Pazzi conspiracy, 1478). Expelled in 1433, Cosimo returned with greater power in 1434. A major art patron who collected classical antiquities, took an active interest in architectural design, and commissioned major works in all media including the following.
Brunelleschi, San Lorenzo
Michellozzo, 1) Medici Palace; 2) San Marco Library and cloister; 3) Tabernacle at S. Annunziata
Fra Angelico, frescoes in the dormitory cells at San Marco
Fra Angelico, altarpieces in the church of San Marco
Fra Filippo Lippi, 1) Madonna and Child (Uffizi); 2) Tondo Madonna (Pitti Palace), 3) Mystical Nativity (for private chapel in Medici palace)
Gozzoli, Procession of the Magi, frescoes in the Medici’s private chapel.
Piero de’ Medici 1418-1469. The son of Cosimo (d. 1464), Piero ran the family for only five years until his death and had little impact.
Giuliano de’ Medici, 1453-78, son of Piero, brother of “Lorenzo the Magnificent,” murdered in the Duomo by a conspiracy of Medici rivals.
*Lorenzo de' Medici, 1449-1492. grandson of Cosimo the Elder. The greatest patron of humanism and art in fifteenth-century Florence, an important humanist poet himself. Patronized Botticelli, Verrocchio, Ghirlandaio, the young Michelangelo, Sangallo, and humanists such as Ficino, Poliziano, and Pulci. Had Sangallo design a villa at Poggio a Caiano outside Florence and redecorated another villa at Spedaletto. In 1479, he won from Innocent VIII a promise of a cardinalship for his four year old son, Giovanni, who went on to become Pope Leo X. Another son, Giuliano, married into the French royal family and was made Duke of Nemours.
*Giovanni de' Medici, born 1475-1521, elected Pope Leo X, 1513-21. Major patron of Raphael (Stanza dell Eliodoro, Stanza Dell Incendio, Stanza del Costantino), Michelangelo (Medici Chapel), Sebastiano, etc.
Giuliano de' Medici, 1479-1516, son of Lorenzo. Francis I, King of France, arranged Giuliano’s marriage to a princess in the House of Savoy and made him Duke of Nemours. Francis I also planned to make him King of Naples but Giuliano died first. One of the two figures in the Medici Chapel (the outward-looking one).
Lorenzo de' Medici, 1492-1519, son of Piero de' Medici and nephew to Giovanni (Pope Leo X) who later made him Duke of Urbino. Not an important patron but one of the two figures in the Medici Chapel (the thinker).
*Giulio de' Medici, electedPope Clement VII, 1523-34. Son of the first Giuliano murdered in the Pazzi conspiracy in 1478. Had Michelangelo to drop the tomb project of Julius II and work on the façade for San Lorenzo and to design the Medici Chapel. Was pope during the Sack of Rome (1527). Major patron of Cellini, Raphael, Michelangelo, and many others.
*Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, 1519-1574. Seized control of Florence after one Medici assassinated another in 1537. He promised to restore republican rule but quickly executed, imprisoned, and exiled all leading republicans. In 1539, he married the enormously rich, Spanish noblewoman, Eleonora de Toledo. Under Cosimo, Florence doubled its territories and annexed Sienna. His court artists included Ammanati, Vasari, Cellini, Giambologna, Bandinelli, Salviati, Pontormo, Bronzino, and others. Of his two sons, Ferdinando succeeded him as Grand Duke and Francesco (d. 1587) fathered Marie de’ Medici, who married Henry IV, king of France.
Ferdinando de’ Medici, d. 1609, son of Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany,