Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments



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Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments

  • Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments

    • Developments in Sciences: The Emergence of a New Physics
      • Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906)
        • Radiation
        • Atoms
      • Max Planck (1858-1947)
        • Energy radiated discontinuously
      • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
        • Theory of relativity
        • Four dimensional space-time continuum
        • Energy of the atom


Toward a New Understanding of the Irrational

    • Toward a New Understanding of the Irrational
      • Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
        • Glorifies the irrational
        • Blame on Christianity
      • Henri Bergson (1859-1941)
        • Reality the “life force”
      • Georges Sorel (1847-1922)
        • Destroy capitalist society
        • New socialist society


Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis

    • Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis
    • The Impact of Darwinism: Social Darwinism and Racism
      • Social Darwinism
        • Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
          • Societies are organisms that evolve
        • Nationalism
        • Racism
          • Houston Stewart Chamberlain


The Attack on Christianity and the Response of the Churches

    • The Attack on Christianity and the Response of the Churches
      • Anticlericalism
      • Ernst Renan (1823-1892), Life of Jesus
        • Questions historical accuracy of Bible
      • Pope Pius IX, 1846-1878
        • Syllabus of Errors, 1864
      • Modernism
      • Pope Leo XIII, 1878-1903
        • De Rerum Novarum, 1891
      • Salvation Army


The Culture of Modernity

    • The Culture of Modernity
      • Naturalism and Symbolism in Literature
        • Émile Zola (1840-1902)
          • Naturalism
        • Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), War and Peace
        • Fydor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)
          • Loss of spiritual belief
          • Crime and Punishment, The Brothers Karamazov
        • Symbolism
          • External world is not real only a collection of symbols that reflect true reality of the human mind


Modernism in the Arts

      • Modernism in the Arts
        • Impressionism
          • Paint the countryside directly
          • Changing effects of light
          • Claude Monet (1840-1926)
          • Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
        • Post-Impressionism
          • Light and color with structure and form
          • Paul Cézanne ((1839-1906)
          • Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)


Modernism in Music

      • Modernism in Music
        • Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
          • Nationalism
        • Impressionism
          • Claude Debussy (1862-1918)


Suffrage

      • Suffrage
        • Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929)
        • Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)
          • Women’s Social an Political Union
          • Publicity
      • The New Woman
        • Maria Montessori (1870-1952)
          • New teaching materials


Jews within the European Nation-State

    • Jews within the European Nation-State
      • Anti-Semitism
      • Christian Socialism’s Racism
      • Case of Captain Alfred Dreyfus
      • Karl Luegar of Vienna
      • Pogroms of eastern Europe
      • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
        • The Jewish State
        • Zionism
    • The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain and Italy
      • Trade Unions
        • Britain’s Labour Party
        • Socialism by evolution


David Lloyd George (1863-1945)

      • David Lloyd George (1863-1945)
          • Benefits for the workers
          • Increased tax burden on the wealthy
          • Transformation of the idea of liberalism
      • Italy
        • Giovanni Giolitti
        • Transformismo
    • Growing Tensions in Germany
      • William II (1888-1918)
      • Military and industrial power
      • Social Democratic party
      • Conflict of tradition and modernization


Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia

    • Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia
      • Sergei Witte (1848-1915), Minister of Finance
        • Railroad, Tans-Siberian
        • Protective tariffs
        • Steel and coal industries
      • Nicholas II, 1894-1917
      • Marxist Social Democratic Party
      • Revolution of 1905
        • Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
          • Port Arthur, February 8, 1904
        • Impact of the war on poor Russians


Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907

        • Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907
    • Rise of the United States
      • Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914
      • 9 percent own 71 percent of wealth
      • American Federation of Labor
        • 8.4 percent of industrial labor


Progressive Era

      • Progressive Era
        • Reform
        • Ineffective state laws result in federal legislation
        • Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921
    • Growth of Canada
  • The New Imperialism

    • Causes of the New Imperialism
      • Nationalism
      • Competition among European nations
      • Social Darwinism and racism
      • Religious humanitarianism, “White man’s burden”
      • Economics
        • Marxist interpretation


Africa in 1914

  • Africa in 1914



The Creation of Empires

    • The Creation of Empires
      • Scramble for Africa
        • Cape Colony
          • Afrikaners
          • Great Trek, 1835


Portuguese

        • Portuguese
        • French
        • British in Egypt
        • Leopold II, 1865-1909
          • International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa, 1876
          • Congo
          • French reaction is to move into territory north of the Congo River
        • By 1914 on Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent


Asia 1914

  • Asia 1914



Asia in the Age of Imperialism

    • Asia in the Age of Imperialism
      • James Cook to Australia, 1768-1771
      • British East India Company
      • Empress of India bestowed on Queen Victoria, 1876
      • Russian expansion
        • Siberia
        • Reach Pacific coast, 1637
        • Press south into the crumbling Ottoman Empire
        • Persia and Afghanistan
        • Korea and Manchuria
      • British acquisition of Hong Kong
      • Spheres of Influence
      • United States’ “Open Door” policy for China, 1899


Japan

      • Japan
        • Matthew Perry opens Japan, 1853-1854
      • Southeast Asia
      • Pacific Islands
    • Asian Responses to Imperialism
      • China
        • Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1901, Society of Harmonious Fists
        • Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)
        • Fall of the Manchu dynasty, 1912, Republic of China


Japan

      • Japan
        • Samurai
        • Meiji Mutsuhito, 1867-1912
          • Meiji Era
          • Westernization of military and industry
      • India
        • British control results in peace and honest government
        • Extreme poverty
        • Indian National Congress, 1883


International Rivalry and the Coming of War

  • International Rivalry and the Coming of War

    • The Bismarckian System
      • Alliances to preserve the new German state
      • Problems in the Balkans
        • Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
        • Rivalries of Austria and Russia
        • Serbia and Montenegro attack Ottoman Empire, 1876


Russia attacks the Ottomans, 1876

        • Russia attacks the Ottomans, 1876
          • Treaty of San Stefano, 1878
          • Congress of Berlin, 1878


The Balkans in 1878

  • The Balkans in 1878



The Balkans in 1913

  • The Balkans in 1913



New Directions and New Crises

    • New Directions and New Crises
      • Military alliance of France and Russia, 1894
      • “Splendid isolation” of Britain
        • Concerns about Germany
          • German navy
      • Entente Cordiale, 1904 – Britain and France
      • First Moroccan Crisis, 1905-1906
      • Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia
      • Crisis in the Balkans, 1908-1913
        • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908
        • Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia
        • First Balkan War, 1912
        • Second Balkan War, 1913




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