In England St Cecilia’s Day (22 November) received particular attention and musical celebration (seeCecilian festivals). In her honour performances were given by the choristers of the Sardinion Embassy Chapel (dedicated to her) and by the Musical Society at St Bride’s Church in Fleet Street. In 1683 Purcell dedicated the first of his St Cecilia odes, Welcome to all the pleasures, to the society. Other composers who provided substantial works for this festival included John Blow, G.B. Draghi, John Eccles and Handel; the most celebrated poem set was Dryden’s From Harmony, from Heav’nly Harmony. Various other bodies organized similar functions for different occasions; some, not least under the aegis of the Church of England, placed emphasis on charity. The Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy, founded in 1655, held an annual service to raise funds for the relief of distress among the families of clergy; from 1697 this was held each May in St Paul’s Cathedral. The best professional talent was employed, and for many years Purcell’s Te Deum and Jubilate in D was regularly performed. In later years Handel’s music took pride of place. Another festival came into being at about the same time to provide funds for children in the charity schools of London, with music performed by the children themselves. This also took place, in due course, in St Paul’s, and eventually as many as 6000 children participated. Both Haydn and Berlioz praised the standard of their performance.
No other composer, perhaps, stimulated as many festivals in England as Handel, reverence for whom rapidly overtook that previously done to St Cecilia. His large-scale choral works, fashioned to a considerable extent from the indigenous anthem, enjoyed so much popularity that arrangements for their regular performance were established in towns and villages throughout Britain. The example of the Sons of the Clergy and St Cecilia festivals stimulated an annual ‘Meeting’ of the cathedral choirs from Gloucester, Worcester and Hereford, the first of which took place about 1715. By 1752 the practice of diversifying the schedule of music with secular works in other buildings was well established. In either case Handel’s music, held in universal veneration, provided the mainstay of the programmes. The Three Choirs Festival, as it came to be known in the 19th century, developed into a major musical occasion which afforded increasing opportunity for performances of new works by the principal British composers, and of important works from Europe and North America.
Festival performances of Handel’s oratorios were given during the last years of his life and immediately after his death in many towns, of which the most important were Newcastle upon Tyne, Salisbury, Bristol, Bath, Coventry, Oxford and Cambridge In centres of industrial expansion such festivals were usually coupled with middle-class concern about social conditions, and important events were organized in Leeds (1767), Birmingham (1768), Norwich (1770), Chester (1772), Newcastle (1778), Liverpool (1784), Manchester (1785), Sheffield (1786) and York (1791) with the primary aim of raising funds to establish or support new hospitals.
In 1784 the ‘centenary’ commemoration of Handel in Westminster Abbey and the Pantheon, with some 500 performers from all parts of England, accelerated the formation of choral societies and charitable foundations. It also implanted the idea that excellence was somehow related to size. This found expression in the early 19th-century Handel performances held under the direction of George Smart, who controlled most of the principal festivals in the country between 1820 and 1850. He was followed by Michael Costa, who directed the Handel festival (1859) at the Crystal Palace, where similar festivals were held triennially until 1926. During the 19th century major festivals developed in the industrial centres of England, fuelled by a great expansion of amateur choral activity. The new concert and town halls erected in Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester and Norwich were used for large-scale musical festivals. While Handel remained central in programmes, Mendelssohn (whose Elijah was a Birmingham commission) enjoyed lasting popularity. Other European composers, including Dvořàk, Gounod, Massenet and Raff, received generous commissions. In 1874 a Tonic Solfa festival took place at the Crystal Palace in London, with 3000 children participating. This was the brainchild of John Curwen, who was also responsible for instituting competitions to stimulate high standards of musical literacy. These in turn inspired Mary Wakefield to hold a modest competitive festival in Westmorland in 1885. From this sprang the modern competitive movement which, since 1921, has been regulated in Britain by the British Federation of Music Festivals (since 1991 part of the British Federation of Festivals), to which over 300 festivals are affiliated. Non-competitive festivals for schools were promoted by Geoffrey Shaw and Cyril Winn, both Board of Education inspectors. Among composers contributing to such amateur music-making were Thomas Dunhill, Gerald Finzi, Gustav Holst, Gordon Jacob, Herbert Howells, John Ireland, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Peter Warlock.
In German-speaking countries, as in England, the oratorios of Handel and Haydn lent impetus to the formation of choirs and related associations. On 20–21 June 1810 G.F. Bischoff, Kantor of Frankenhausen, assembled singers and instrumentalists from neighbouring towns in Thuringia for a performance of Haydn’s The Creation and other works under Spohr’s direction. This was Germany’s first festival in the modern sense, and its success led to similar events in that town in 1812, 1815 and 1829. On 15–16 August 1811 Bischoff was constrained to organize a ‘Napoleon Festival’ in Erfurt. Although he probably disliked the reason for the festival, he provided an interesting and varied programme, including works by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Spohr. In 1820 the industrious Bischoff arranged a three-day festival in Helmstedt, and it was after his example that Johannes Schornstein, musical director at Elberfeld, combined singers from that town and from Düsseldorf for a Whitsuntide festival in 1817. From this developed the Niederrheinisches Musikfest, held in turn in Düsseldorf, Aachen, Wuppertal and Cologne, which Mendelssohn conducted from 1833 until his death in 1847.
That festivals should be directed by a distinguished guest conductor became an early principle, and one that usually delighted the amateur singers who took part. In 1829 J.F. Naue, musical director at Halle, engaged Spontini to conduct a festival in the city, and two years later he concentrated attention on Halle’s most famous son in a Handel festival. All these ventures were evidence of a zeal for choral music and for the ideals that went with it. The most obvious of these were concerned with nationalism and education; pioneers of the music festival as an educational resource included Hans Georg Nägeli and Friedrich Silcher, who founded a festival at Plochingen (Württemberg) in 1827. In Vienna large-scale festival performances of Handel’s Alexander’s Feast in 1812 contributed to the foundation of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde and thereafter annual music festivals, at which oratorios were given by a large number of performers in the Riding School.
4. Commemorative festivals, c1750–c1900.
Festivals to commemorate a great writer or musician seem to have originated in the second half of the 18th century. In 1769, even before the Handel Festival of 1784 (see §3 above), Stratford-on-Avon had marked the bicentenary of Shakespeare’s birth with pageantry for which music was composed by Thomas Arne. After the death of Beethoven the cult of the great artist became stronger in response to evolving nationalist urges. Handel festivals, designed to further a British or a German national heritage according to where they took place, continued to proliferate, but at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th other important German-speaking composers, particularly of the Baroque and Classical periods, began to find support and adulation from societies and collateral festivals. On 23 April 1843, a year after a statue of Mozart had been placed in Salzburg, a monument to Bach was unveiled in Leipzig, with the performance of suitable music chosen by Mendelssohn. This occasion may be taken as the progenitor of all subsequent Bach festivals. In August 1845 the new statue of Beethoven in Bonn occasioned a much larger demonstration of devotion in a truly international festival, the forerunner of countless Beethoven festivals in many parts of the world. During the 1858 Handel Festival in Halle a statue of him was presented to the public. A Mozarteum was instituted in Salzburg, and the first of the great sequence of Mozart festivals took place there in 1877. This was appreciatively noticed by Mary Cowden-Clarke, not only on account of the excellence of the music but also because of the ‘gastronomical pleasures’ that are now taken to be a necessary concomitant to artistic enterprises designed to accommodate touristic interest. Wagner can be said to have instituted his own commemorative festival in 1876, when the Festspielhaus was opened at Bayreuth for the sole purpose of presenting his music dramas.
5. North American festivals, c1850–c1900.
In the USA festivals had a particular appeal among German immigrant communities who had formed their own choirs, and they were furthered by the establishment of a ‘North German Bund’ in 1847. In 1857 and 1858 the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston organized ‘conventions’ (i.e. festivals) in Boston and Worcester. But it was Patrick S. Gilmore, a bandmaster styled ‘high priest of the colossal’, who brought the cult of bigness to its first climax in the National Peace Jubilee and Musical Festival held in Boston in 1869. Described at the time as ‘the grandest musical festival ever known in the history of the world’, it required a chorus of 10,000 and an orchestra of 1000. The conclusion of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 so stimulated interest in German music in the USA that some 20,000 performers took part in Gilmore’s World Peace Jubilee in Boston in 1872. A prominent conductor in the USA at that time was the German-born Theodore Thomas. With his own orchestra, he had conspicuous success in organizing the Cincinnati May Festival of 1873 and the Philadelphia Centennial Concerts of 1876, and he was given control of those held in New York and Chicago in 1883.
Meanwhile music festivals were taking root in Canada; the first of any importance took place in Montreal on 24 October 1860, when the Prince of Wales opened the Victoria Bridge. British connections remained strong, and the choral tradition was cultivated by British-born musicians. One of the most active was Charles Harriss, who in 1903 invited Alexander Mackenzie to direct 18 festivals in five weeks, the programmes being almost entirely of works by British composers. In 1906 Harriss organized a successful British-Canadian Music Festival in London (England). A choir of multi-cultural character that sang in many festivals both in Canada and abroad was the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, founded by the German A.S. Vogt (1894) and taken over after his retirement by H.A. Fricker, formerly chorus master for the Leeds Festival. The patriotic feelings of German Canadians led to a Friedensfest in Berlin (now Kitchener), Ontario, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War, and to a Sängerfest in the same place in 1875. This was a rallying point for such immigrant music groups as the Concordia of Berlin and the Germania of Hamilton. Nationalism of another kind was also evident in the Fête Nationale des Canadiens-Français held in Quebec in 1880, at which Calixa Lavallée’s O Canada was first sung.
6. The 20th century.
As the century progressed there was an unprecedented proliferation of music festivals of all kinds. Modern communications ensured that those well established in the 19th century became increasingly international in character and that newly-established festivals were quickly able to find places on the international scene. Among the latter were the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino (inaugurated 1933), the Holland Festival (1948), and festivals at Lucerne (1938), Prague (1946) and Edinburgh (1947).
In Europe the music festival continued through the century to function as an embodiment of national or ideological aspirations. In 1905 it was claimed that there were some 50,000 amateur singers engaged in competitive choral festivals in England. In that year a festival primarily for rural choirs was founded in England at Leith Hill, where Vaughan Williams lived; he became closely associated with it and it remains a monument to his concern for amateur musicians. In Germany the Arbeiter Sängerbund, founded in 1928, held music festivals with political objectives, organizing an international Arbeiter Olympiade in Strasbourg in 1935. After the Yalta conference of 1945, the political climate affected Eastern European festivals for 50 years. Music at public festivals was meant to support the tenets of Marxism; in the German Democratic Republic in particular there was no shortage of suitable new texts from the pens of, among others, Berthold Brecht, Johannes R. Becher and Stephen Hermelin, and the composers Hanns Eisler and Ernst Hermann Meyer made effective use of this material. Central to the East German festival tradition were the Arbeiter-Festspiele, to which many composers contributed. Bach and Handel festivals were also continued. The Festival of Britain (1951), conceived as ‘a tonic for the nation’ in a time of austerity and marking the centenary of the Great Exhibition, included music as an important element. An ambitious range of concerts, opera and ballet was given in London, where the Royal Festival Hall remains as a monument, and music was included in local arts festivals throughout the country. The Arts Council of Great Britain provided financial support, promoted concert series of early music, and commissioned works by many British composers.
The festival organized by Benjamin Britten and others in Aldeburgh, Suffolk (from 1948), included other arts than music, particularly painting and literature; this became a popular practice for festivals established in the latter half of the century. Just as Britten’s initiative gave prominence to its locality, so did the festival at Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands, established by Peter Maxwell Davies in 1974. In both places local authorities, at first reluctant, discovered that such events could help the local economy as well as the community’s artistic reputation. By the end of the century there were few European towns associated with scenic beauty, distinguished architecture or a famous composer that did not have their own festivals, and few festivals could resist claiming ‘international’ status. The music festival has also become an international phenomenon taken up by major cities throughout the world. From the 1950s Rio de Janeiro was a centre of festivals and music competitions. Arts festivals in Tokyo (established 1948), Osaka (1958), Hong Kong (1972) and Seoul (1976) all include music as an important element.
Most of the large towns and many centres of tourism in Australia, Canada and the USA initiated music festivals of one kind or another during the 20th century, and festivals were organized around major orchestras. Among the most important North American events is the Tanglewood Festival in Massachusetts (first held in 1934 in Stockbridge), centred on concerts by the Boston SO. The Marlboro (Vermont) Music Festival (founded 1951) is devoted entirely to the performance of chamber music. Other well-established American festivals include those at Aspen, Colorado (founded 1949), Ravinia Park, near Chicago (1936), Wolf Trap Farm Park, near Washington, DC (1971), Ojai, near Los Angeles, and the Grant Park Concerts in Chicago (1934). One of the first festivals devoted to indigenous American music was the Old Time Fiddlers’ Convention, founded in 1924 in North Carolina. The National Folk Festival in the USA had its origins in St Louis in 1934; its permanent base from 1971 was Wolf Trap Farm Park. In Canada, festivals of traditional music were inaugurated in Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver and Winnipeg during the 1970s and 80s. The Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, holds an American Folklife Festival; the Philadelphia Folk Festival was founded in 1962. Although a precursor of the jazz festival took place in Chicago in the form of the International Jazz Congress of 1926, the first true jazz festivals sprang up outside the USA: the Australian Jazz Convention was first held in 1946, and the Nice Jazz Festival, the first jazz festival of international importance, was in 1948, followed by the first Paris Jazz Fair in 1949. Among important and long-lived American jazz festivals are those at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1954 (moved to New York in 1972) and Monterey, California, in 1958. The jazz festival in Warsaw founded in 1959 also drew international attention. Such festivals provided unprecedented opportunities for internationally known jazz musicians to come together, and some musicians made careers travelling from one festival to another. Scores of jazz festivals were inaugurated throughout North America and Western Europe in the 1970s and 80s, reflecting the increasing interest in jazz as concert music.
The proliferation of festivals has led many organizers to look for a focal point for their concerts and recitals. Often a different anniversary or aspect of music is chosen each year. In other cases a festival may be built around a celebrated executant (e.g. Casals at the Prades Festival and in Puerto Rico, Menhuin in Bath and Windsor) or a famous composer (e.g. Britten at the Aldeburgh Festival, Villa-Lobos in Rio de Janeiro). Festivals wholly or partly devoted to opera, apart from Bayreuth, include those at Munich (dating in its present form from 1901), Zürich (1909), Glyndebourne (1934), Aix-en-Provence (1948), Wexford (1951) and Marseilles (1971, devoted to contemporary opera). The Haslemere Festival was founded in 1925 by Arnold Dolmetsch to give practical effect to his research in the performance of early music. In the second half of the century early music played an increasingly important role in many festivals, and several festivals devoted to it were established, among them those at Innsbruck (inaugurated 1972), Cervantes, Mexico (1972), York (1977), Boston (1981) and Glasgow (1990). Devotees of the organ are served by several specialist festivals; one of the best known, the biennial International Organ Festival, was established by Peter Hurford at St Albans, Hertfordshire, in 1963. The earliest 20th-century festival to focus on contemporary music was at Donaueschingen, initiated in 1921 by Prince Max Egon zu Fürstenberg. It was at first for chamber music, but this emphasis was abandoned when it was revived in 1950. The first of many important festivals organized by the ISCM (1923) was also given over to chamber music, but the scope soon widened to include many different genres. Festivals devoted to contemporary music were later established in Venice (1930), Witten (1936, chamber music), Cheltenham (1945, British music), Brussels (1958), Palermo (1960), Wrocław (1962), Royan and La Rochelle (1964), Brescia (1969), Huddersfield (1978) and San Francisco (1980). The Japanese Society of 20th-Century Music (founded in 1957) sponsors a summer festival, and the Japanisch-Deutsches Festival für Neue Musik was established in 1967.
A fashion for pop and rock festivals on a huge scale was set by the Monterey International Pop Festival held in 1967, which attracted an audience of 60,000; two years later the rock festival at Woodstock, New York, drew 300,000 people. Their mix of internationally famous performers, enthusiastic audience participation, drug use and social protest was imitated elsewhere in the USA and Europe during the 1970s. By the end of the 20th century popular music particular to the young, while owing much to American practice, had become international. The use of global communication media to promote pop festivals and performers, together with the increased availability of international travel, have allowed such festivals to reach unprecedentedly large and diverse audiences. This potential was exploited in the 1980s and 90s to raise money for charity, notably with Band Aid in Britain and Farm Aid in the USA; in both cases the performances and appeals for donations were broadcast internationally. The travelling Lollapalooza festival, founded in the early 1990s around grunge music, also used international media to publicize its annual season of tours.
The following is a selective list of non-competitive festivals that have achieved international significance. The list is organized alphabetically by country, and within that, by city and name of festival. Each entry is based on the following scheme:
(i) Name of festival.
(ii) Founding date.
(iii) Frequency of festival.
National Folklore Festival of Gjirokastra [Festivali Folklorik Kombëtar i Gjirokastrës] (1968) O
National Children’s and Pioneers’ Festival [Festivali Kombëtar i Këngës për Fatosa dhe Pionierë] (1963) Y
Albanian Radio and Television Song Festival [Festivali i Këngës në Radiotelevizion] (1962) Y
Evenings of New Albanian Music [Mbremje e Muzikës së re Shqiptare], later Days [Ditë] of New Albanian Music (1992) Y
International Days for New Chamber Music [Ditë Ndërkombëtare të Muzikës se Re të Dhomës], from 1998 Tirana Autumn [Vjeshta e Tiranës] (1994)
Nikolla Zoraqi Festival of the Interpretation of Contemporary Music [Festivali i Interpretimit të Muzikës Bashkëkohore ‘Nikolla Zoraqi’] (1994, 1997, 1998)
Tonin Harapi Albanian Song Festival [Festival i Romancës Shqiptare ‘Tonin Harapi’] (1994) Y
Contemporary Music Days [Nykymusiikin Päivä] (1960–c1980)
Helsinki Biennale (1981) B, from 1998 Musica Nova Helsinki, Y
Helsinki Festival [Helsingin Juhlaviikot] (1968) Y
Sibelius Week [Sibelius Viikko] (1951–65)
Folk Music Festival (1968)
Savonlinna Opera Festival [Savonlinnan Ooperajuhlat] (1912–14, 1916, 1920, Y from 1967)
Tampere Biennale, B
Turku Music Festival (1960); incl. Ruisrock from 1970
Festival d’Art Lyrique et de Musique d’Aix-en-Provence et l’Académie Européenne de Musique, informally Aix-en-Provence Festival (1948) Y
Festival International de Musique, also known as Besançon Festival (1948) Y
Festival Jazz en Franche-Comté (1981)
Mai Musica (1950)
Rencontres Internationales d’Art Contemporain (1973–77); see also under Royan
Lyons Berlioz Festival, from 1991 Biennale de la Musique Française (1979) B
Le Printemps des Arts de Monte Carlo, Y
Festival des Musiques Actuelles
Nice Jazz Festival (1948)
Festival d’Automne (1972)
Festival de Paris (1954)
Fête de la Musique (c1981) Y
Journées de Musique Contemporaine (1970) Y
Oeuvre du XXe Siècle (1952)
Semaines Musicales Internationales de Paris (1968)
Rencontres de Musique et Danse Contemporaines de Poitiers
Tournoi Européen d’Improvisation Musicale
Prades Festival (1950) Y
Festival International d’Art Contemporain, also known as Royan Festival, in 1973 moved to La Rochelle as the Rencontres Internationales d’Art Contemporain (1964–77)
Festival de Musique (1932)
Fêtes Musicales en Touraine (1964) Y
Niederrheinisches Musikfest, also known as Lower Rhine Festival (1818); held alternately in Aachen, Cologne, Düsseldorf and Wuppertal
Ansbach Bach Festival (1948) B
Schwäbisches Musikfest (1886)
Deutsche Kammermusik Baden-Baden (1927–9); see also under donaueschingen
Tonkünstlerfest des Allgemeinen Musikvereins (1880 only)
Bayreuther Festspiele (1876, Y from 1936–44, Y from 1951)
Insel-Musik (early 1970s)
Pro Musica Antiqua (c1961) B
Pro Musica Nova (c1961) B
Ferienkurse für Internationale Neue Musik, later Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, informally Darmstadt summer courses (Y 1946–70, B from 1972)
Sommerspiele Kranichstein (1994)
Kammermusikaufführungen zur Förderung Zeitgenössischer Tonkunst, also known as Donaueschingen Festival, moved to Baden-Baden 1927–9 and Berlin 1930, revived in 1950 in Donaueschingen as Donaueschinger Musiktage für Zeitgenössiche Tonkunst, also known as Donaueschingen Festival of Contemporary Music, from 1969 Donaueschinger Musiktage (1921)
Westphalian Music Festival (1852) O
Dresdner Musikfestspiele (1978)
Dresdner Musiktage (1949–1960s)
Tage der Zeitgenössischen Musik (1987)
International Schumann Festival (1981)
Rheinisches Musikfest (1984)
Telemann festival (1982)
Thüringer Bach-Wochen (1991); also held in other cities
Drei Choren Festival (1994) Y; takes place alternately in Breda, Haarlem and Worcester
Elgar Choral Festival (1988) T
Three Choirs Festival (c1715) Y; held alternately in Hereford, Gloucester and Worcester
York Early Music Festival (1977) Y
York Festival (T 1951–69, T from 1973)
York Musical Festival (1910 only)
Yorkshire Grand Musical Festival (1823, 1825, 1828, 1835)
united states of america
ann arbor (MI)
Ann Arbor May Festival (1894) Y
Aspen Music Festival and School (1949) Y
New Texas Festival, from 1999 Texas Music Works (1993) Y
South by Southwest, Y
Bethlehem Bach Festival (1900, 1901, 1903, 1905, Y from 1912)
Boston Early Music Festival and Exhibition (1981) B
National Peace Jubilee and Musical Festival (1869 only)
June in Buffalo Festival (1975) Y
North American New Music Festival (1983–96)
central City (CO)
Central City Opera Festival (1932)
Charleston Baroque Festival (1997 only)
Festival of Two Worlds, later Spoleto Festival USA (1977) Y; see also Spoleto, Italy
Grant Park Concerts, from 1995 Grant Park Music Festival (1934)
Ravinia Festival (1936); incl. Jazz and Contemporary Music Series
May Festival (1873, 1875, B from 1878, Y from 1967)
May Festival (1880–86, 1895–7)
Sängerfest (1855, 1859, 1874, 1893, 1927)
coral Gables (FL)
Montreux-Detroit International Jazz Festival, from 1982 Montreux-Detroit Kool Jazz Festival (1980)
great barrington (MA)
Aston Magna Festival (1972)
May Music Festival, also known as Grand Festival (1874–5, 1886–98)
Romantic Music Festival (1968–88) Y
Tanglewood Festival (1934) Y; incl. Festival of Contemporary Music (1964)
Sound Celebration (1987, 1992)
Marlboro Music School and Festival (1951) Y
New Music Festival, later Imagine Festival (1972)
Calle Ocho Festival (1978) Y
Hispanic Heritage Month (1973) Y
Viennese Sommerfest (1980) Y
Monterey International Pop Festival (1967 only)
new orleans (LA)
New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival (1969) Y
new york (NY)
Mostly Mozart Festival (1966) Y
new york (NY)
Newport Jazz Festival, moved to New York, from 1981 Kool Jazz Festival (1972) Y
Ambler Festival at Temple University (1967–80)
American Music Theatre Festival (1984)
Bach Festival, Y
Philadelphia Folk Festival (1962)
Opera under the Stars Festival (1952–74)
round Top (TX)
International Festival-Institute at Round Top (1971)
st louis (MO)
National Ragtime Festival (1965)
salt lake city (UT)
Park City Arts Festival
salt lake city (UT)
Utah Arts Festival, Y
san diego (CA)
(Summer) Verdi Festival (1978–82, 1985)
san francisco (CA)
Stern Grove Midsummer Music Festival (1938)
san francisco (CA)
Summer Opera Festival (1981–5)
santa fe (NM)
Santa Fe Opera Festival (1957) Y
American Folklife Festival in the Smithsonian Institution
American Music Festival at the National Gallery of Art
Worcester Music Festival (1858) Y
Festival, §7: List
(i) Name of festival.
Each festival is given under its full original name. Subsequent name changes are given in chronological order, with dates provided where known. Variations in name, or alternative names, are also indicated after the original name. Square brackets are used to indicate original language titles of festivals, or English translations of festivals that are used in this dictionary.
Festival, §7: List
(ii) Founding date.
The date of foundation of the festival, where known, is shown in parentheses at the end of the entry.
Festival, §7: List
(iii) Frequency of festival.
This is indicated as follows: Y – yearly, B – biennially, T – triennially, O – occasionally or irregularly.
Other details are shown after a semicolon. Further information can be found in the appropriate country or city articles and, in some cases, in articles on the festival. Where only the country or state is mentioned instead of a city, the festival takes place in more than one location.
GroveA (D. Baily); GroveJ (B. Kernfeld, P.R. Laird); GroveO (J. Rosselli, S. Roberts, H. Finch)
E.Pilon and F.Saisset: Les fêtes en Europe au XVIIIe siècle (St Gratien, 1900)
J.Chartrou-Charbonel: Les entrés solennelles et triomphales à la Renaissance (Paris, 1928)
E.Magne: Les fêtes en Europe aux XVIIe siècle (Paris, 1930)
D.G.Stoll: Music Festivals of Europe (London, 1938)
Les fêtes de la Renaissance [I]: Royaumont 1954
A.Yorke-Long: Music at Court (London, 1954)
K.Sälze: ‘Die Barockfesten’, Das grosse Welttheater, ed. R. Alewyn (Hamburg, 1959, 2/1985)
G.Pietzsch: ‘Die beschreibungen deutscher Fürstenhochzeiten von der Mitte des 15. bis zum Beginn des 17. Jahrhunderts als musikgeschichtliche Quellen’, AnM, xv (1960), 21–62
H.Biehn, ed.: Feste und Feiern im alten Europa (Munich, 1962)
D.G.Stoll: Music Festivals of the World (Oxford, 1963)
R.Strong: Art and Power: Renaissance Festivals, 1450–1650 (Woodbridge, 1984)
U.Schultz, ed.: Das Fest: eine Kulturgeschichte von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Munich, 1988)
E.A.Bowles: Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 1500–1800: an Iconographical and Documentary Survey (Ann Arbor, 1989)
B.A.Hanawalt and K.L.Reyerson, eds.: City and Spectacle in Medieval Europe (Minneapolis, 1994)
T.Harkins, ed.: The Virgin Rock Year Book (London, 1994–5)
The History of … the Charitable Foundation at Church-Langton (London, 1767)
C.Burney: An Account of the Musical Performances … in Commemoration of Handel (London, 1785/R)
J.Crosse: An Account of the Grand Musical Festival, held in September, 1823, in the Cathedral Church of York (York, 1825)
‘'Festival of the Sons of the Clergy’, The Harmonicon, iv (1826), 132 only
L.Mason: Musical Letters from Abroad: including Detailed Accounts of the Birmingham, Norwich, and Düsseldorf Music Festivals of 1852 (New York, 1854/R)
W.H.Husk: An Account of the Musical Celebrations on St Cecilia’s Day in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (London, 1857)
J.B.T.Marsh, ed.: The Story of the Jubilee Singers (London, 1875, enlarged 3/1900)
F.R.Spark and J.Bennett: History of the Leeds Musical Festivals 1858–1889 (Leeds, 1892)
R.H.Legge and W.E.Hansell: Annals of the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festivals, 1824–1893 (London, 1896)
E.H.Pearce: History of the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy (London, 1904)
E.Welsford: The Court Masque: a Study in the Relationship between Poetry & the Revels (Cambridge, 1927)
R.Nettel: Music in the Five Towns, 1840–1934 (Oxford, 1944)
H.C.Colles: ‘The Delius Festival’, Essays and Lectures (London, 1945/R), 107–9
‘The Festival’, MT, lxxii (1951), 249–53 [editorial on the Festival of Britain]
P.M.Young: ‘Die Händel-Pflege in den englischen Provinzen’, HJb 1960, 31–49
D.J.Reid and B.Pritchard: ‘Some Festival Programmes of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, RMARC, no.5 (1965), 51–79; no.6 (1966), 3–23; no.7 (1969), l–27; no.8 (1970), 23–33; no.11 (1973), 138 only
D.I.Allsobrook: Music for Wales (Cardiff, 1992)
A.Boden: Three Choirs: a History of the Festival (Stroud, 1992)
germany and austria
A.J.Becher: Das niederrheinische Musikfest, ästhetisch und historisch betrachtet (Cologne, 1836)
P.Lemeke: Die thüringischen Musikfeste und die Erfurter Napoleonsfeste (Magdeburg, 1886)
K.Heckel: Die Bühnenfestspiele in Bayreuth (Leipzig, 1891)
A.Einstein: Introduction to Fünfzehntes Bachfest München (Munich, 1927)
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