Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

Forzando [forzato]. See Sforzando. Forzano, Giovacchino

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Forzando [forzato].

See Sforzando.

Forzano, Giovacchino

(b Borgo San Lorenzo, Florence, 19 Nov 1884; d Rome, 18 Oct 1970). Italian playwright, librettist and director. After studying medicine he began his career as a baritone, and then turned to the study of law. Having graduated, he became active as a journalist, contributing regularly to several of Italy’s leading newspapers. In 1914 he made the acquaintance of Puccini, with whom he collaborated on Suor Angelica and Gianni Schicchi (both 1918), the last two panels of Il trittico, having declined Il tabarro on the grounds that he preferred to devise his own plots. Other composers to profit from Forzano’s resourcefulness and adaptability as a librettist included Franchetti (Notte di leggenda, 1915; Glauco, 1922), Leoncavallo (Edipo re, 1920), Wolf-Ferrari (Gli amanti sposi, 1925; Sly, 1927) and Giordano (Il re, 1929); the temporary triumph of Mascagni’s Il piccolo Marat (1921) was partly due to the powerful, almost cinematic vividness of Forzano’s scenario. He was a stage director at La Scala (1920–30), and later directed propaganda films for the Fascist regime. His volume of reminiscences, Come li ho conosciuti (Turin, 1957), offers revealing sidelights on the composers with whom he worked.


GroveO (J. Budden) [incl. list of librettos]

J.W. Klein: ‘Giovacchino Forzano, 1884–1970’, Opera, xxii (1971), 303–8


Foscarini, Giovanni Paolo

(fl 1629–47). Italian composer, guitarist, lutenist and theorist. He was one of the most important 17th-century guitar composers and served as a professional guitarist and lutenist in Brussels, Rome, Paris and Venice. A member of the Accademia dei Caliginosi at Ancona, he used the society's name together with his own academic name, ‘Il furioso’, as a pseudonym in his earliest publications. His first book for guitar is no longer extant but its contents, and those of the second book, were reprinted in part in his later collections. Il primo, secondo e terzo libro was the earliest engraved Italian guitar tablature; it contains selections from Foscarini's first two books in the battute style, and an additional third book, which introduces the pizzicato technique. Foscarini's fourth and fifth books were published together with the earlier material, using the original plates but with some changes to the dedications. Il primo, secondo e terzo libro and Li cinque libri include an elegant portrait of Foscarini (reproduced in Kirkendale, p.xii). He also published a philosophical discourse, Dell'armonia del mondo, lettione due, in 1647.

In the preface to Il primo, secondo e terzo libro, Foscarini indicated three distinct guitar styles: the older battute style; the strict pizzicato style, which he claimed is more appropriate to the lute than the guitar; and a style combining the two, which he particularly emphasized and which may have been his own innovation. This last style was favoured by later guitarists such as Corbetta, Bartolotti and Granata. Although his notation is sometimes inconsistent and incomplete, Foscarini's works cover the entire spectrum of Italian guitar music up to 1640 and they were highly regarded and copied in his own time and later.


Libro primo (n.p., n.d.) [contents reprinted in Il primo, secondo e terzo libro della chitarra spagnola]

Intavolatura di chitarra spagnola, libro secondo (Macerata, 1629); 4 ed. in Hudson (1982)

Il primo, secondo e terzo libro della chitarra spagnola (n.p., n.d.) [incl. contents of 1629 book]

I 4 libri della chitarra spagnola (n.p., n.d.) [incl. contents of Il primo, secondo e terzo libro]; 14 ed. in Hudson (1982)

Li 5 libri della chitarra alla spagnola (Rome, 1640) [incl. contents of Il primo, secondo e terzo libro and I 4 libri]

Inventione di toccate sopra la chitarra spagnuola (Rome, 1640) [contents as Li 5 libri]


Dell'armonia del mondo, lettione due (Paris, 1647)


WolfH, ii

S. Murphy: ‘Seventeenth-Century Guitar Music: Notes on Rasgueado Performance’, GSJ, xxi (1968), 24–32, esp. 26, 30

W. Kirkendale: L’Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il Ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972) [incl. portrait], 11, 22, 26, 38, 65, 77

P. Danner: ‘Giovanni Paolo Foscarini and his “Nuova Inventione”’, JLSA, vii (1974), 4–18

R. Hudson: Passacaglio and Ciaccona: from Guitar Music to Italian Keyboard Variations in the 17th Century (Ann Arbor, 1981)

R. Hudson: The Folia, the Saraband, the Passacaglia, and the Chaconne, MSD, xxxv (1982)

T. Christensen: ‘The Spanish Baroque Guitar and Seventeenth-Century Triadic Theory’, JMT, xxxvi (1992), 1–42

G.R. Boye: Giovanni Battista Granata and the Development of Printed Guitar Music in Seventeenth-Century Italy (diss., Duke U., 1995), 44–60

G.R. Boye: ‘Performing Seventeenth-Century Italian Guitar Music: the Question of an Appropriate Stringing’, Performance on Lute, Guitar, and Vihuela: Historical Practice and Modern Interpretation, ed. V.A. Coelho (Cambridge, 1997), 180–94


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