(b Potsdam, 22 Oct 1838; d Danzig, 27 Aug 1922). German critic, pianist, conductor and composer. The son of an organist, he studied music from an early age. In 1859 he enrolled at the University of Berlin, studying theology and later philosophy; during this time he took piano lessons from Hans von Bülow. For a time he was torn between his interests in philosophy and music; having decided upon the latter he studied thoroughbass with Carl Friedrich Weitzmann and composition with Friedrich Kiel. For two and a half years he taught the piano privately in Berlin before accepting a position at Kullak’s Neue Akademie der Tonkunst in 1868. With the singer Clara Werner (whom he married in 1870) he gave concerts in Berlin, Pomerania and Silesia and became organist at the Nikolaikirche in Stralsund in 1869. In his dissertation Praeliminarien zu einer Kritik der Tonkunst (University of Greifswald, 1871) he analysed the enjoyment of music from the point of view of Schopenhauer’s philosophy. Returning to Berlin in 1871, he performed as a pianist and was active as a writer (e.g. for the Musikalisches Wochenblatt). In 1874 he moved to Hirschberg, where he founded and conducted a music society. Settling in Danzig in 1879, he was active as a pianist, teacher, organist (from 1886 at St Peter und St Paul and from 1887 at the synagogue) and music critic (especially for the Danziger Zeitung, 1887–1920). He was named professor in 1904.
In spite of his many-faceted musical activities – especially in Danzig, whose importance as a musical centre increased through his initiative – it is as a writer that Fuchs made his most important contribution, on subjects ranging from musical expression and ornamentation to style and aesthetics. Particularly noteworthy are Die Zukunft des musikalischen Vortrags (Danzig, 1884), Die Freiheit des musikalischen Vortrags (Danzig, 1885), Praktische Anleitung zum Phrasieren (Berlin, 1886), in collaboration with Hugo Riemann, and Takt und Rhythmus im Choral (Berlin, 1911). His friendship and correspondence with Nietzsche, whom he met in Berlin in 1872, contributed significantly to his views on musical aesthetics. His compositions include Hellas (1868), a set of piano pieces on modern Greek themes.
H.J.Moser: Erinnerungen an Carl Fuchs (Danzig, 1922)
H.Sočnik: ‘Carl Fuchs zum Gedächtnis’, ZfM, Jg.89 (1922), 423–4
W.Gurlitt: Hugo Riemann (Wiesbaden, 1951)
GAYNOR G. JONES/CHRISTOPHER FIFIELD
(b Mainz, 3 Dec 1752; d Paris, 9 Oct 1821). French composer and clarinettist of German birth. After learning to play the clarinet, bassoon and horn, he studied composition with Haydn and Christian Cannabich. He played in several German military bands and became the band-leader at Zweibrücken. In 1784 he moved to Paris and in 1793 became a musician of the highest rank in the Garde Nationale. He taught solfège at the Paris Conservatoire from its opening in 1795, but was relieved of this post during the reform of 1800. He spent the rest of his life working for various Parisian publishers (including Imbault, Naderman and Sieber), arranging all sorts of compositions for diverse combinations of instruments. His own works include pieces for military band, fanfares, a few orchestral works, and numerous chamber works, most of them involving a clarinet. His arrangements reveal considerable craftsmanship.
printed works published in Paris unless otherwise stated
Orch: Conc., cl, orch, op.14; Fl Conc. (1798), lost; Sinfonie concertante, hn, cl, orch, no op.; Hn Conc., mentioned in FétisB, 4ème concerto, hn, mentioned in MGG1
Sextet, cl, bn, hn, vn, va, db, op.34
Qts: 3 for cl, vn, va, b, op.2; 3 quatuors concertants, cl, cl/vn, va, b, op.5 (1793), arr. 2 cl, hn; 3 quatuors concertants, cl, vn, va, b, op.6 (1793); 3 for cl, vn, va, b, op.7; 3  quatuors concertants, hn, cl, bn, b, op.A–B (1798); 3 for hn, vn, va, b, op.3l, 1 ed. in Flores musicae, xxvi (Lausanne, c1982); 3 quatuors concertants, cl, vn, va, b, op.37, lost; 3 quatuors concertants, hn, cl, bn, vc, no op., ?arr. of op.31; 3 for 2 cl, 2 hn; qts opp.13, 19 mentioned in FétisB; arrs.
Trios: 3 for fl, cl, bn, op.1, lost; 3 for hn, cl, bn, op.1 (1802); 6 for 3 hn, op.44, lost; 3  trios concertants, 2 vn, vc, op.45, bks 1–2 (1797); 3 trios concertants, cl, vn, vc, op.64; 12 nocturnes, 2 hns, bn; 6 for 3 cl, no op.; 3 for 2 cl, bn, no op. and 3 for 2 cl, vn, no op., mentioned in Riemann; other trios for cl, hn, bn mentioned in FétisB
Duos: 3 for cl, vn, op.1 (1792), lost; 24 sonatines faciles, 2 fl, op.1 (1802); 6 for cl, bn, op.4 (1793); 6 for cl, hn, op.5 (1793); 3 duos concertants, 2 fl, op.5 (Leipzig, ?1818); 6 for cl, bn, op.6; 3 for cl, hn, op.6, lost; 6 for 2 cl, op.7, lost; 3 for 2 cl, op.10, lost; 3 for cl, vn, op.13, lost; 3 for cl, vn, op.14, ed. B. Päuler (Winterthur, 1987); 3 for cl, vn, op.15; 3 for cl, vn, op.18, lost; 3 for fl, cl, op.19 (?1799), ed. J.G. Mullers (Winterthur, 1990); 6 for 2 vn, op.19; 3 for fl, cl, op.20; 6 for 2 cl, op.22 (1798), lost; 12 for 2 cl, op.28 (1797), lost; Duos, 2 cl, mêlés de valzes, allemandes et polonaises, op.29; for cl, hn, op.32, lost; 6 for cl, hn, op.36; 6 for cl, hn, op.37, lost; 3 duos concertants, 2 fl, op.51; 3 for 2 fl, op.65; 3 duos concertants, bk 4; ?3–18 more for cl, vn
Military music: 1e [–5e] harmonie caractéristique, 4 cl, 2 hn, 2 bn, tpt, ?serpent, perc (1792–4): untitled, Le siège de Lille, Le siège de Thionville, L'entrée de Custine à Mayence, La bataille de Gemmappes et l'entrée à Mons; La bataille de Marengo [ded. Napoleon Bonaparte]; Airs patriotiques, cls, 2 hn, 2 bn, 2 fl, tpt, perc (1798), lost; [104me] Suite militaire, marche pas redoublée et fanfares à plusieurs instruments à vent; other works
Other works: potpourris, variations on popular tunes; numerous arrs. of popular operatic themes, ww