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DEVELOPMENT OF LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL BASIS


FOR OVERALL FOREST LAND USE ZONING
IN AMBROLAURI DISTRICT (CENTRAL CAUCASUS)


landSaftur-ekologiuri karkasis (bazisis) Seswavla

tyeTmowyobis zonirebisaTvis
(ambrolauris raioni)

geografiul mecnierebaTa kandidati

docenti n. elizbaraSvili


Tbilisi 2002





landSaftur-ekologiuri gamokvlevebis

arsi da mniSvneloba
saqarTvelos Tanamedrove socialur-ekonomikuri da geopolitikuri orientacia bunebrivi garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebis, saerTaSoriso da regionaluri mniSvnelobis proeqtebis ganxorcielebis, bunebis dacvisa da racionaluri bunebaTsargeblobis saxelmwifoebrivi programis axlebul gaazrebas moiTxovs. saqarTveloSi ukve ramodenime weliwadia xorcieldeba evropa-aziis energetikuli derefnis, daculi teritoriebis axali sistemis, tyis inventarizaciisa da gaumjobesebuli eqspluataciis, samTamadno mrewvelobis amoqmedebasTan dakavSirebuli da ara erTi saxeobis bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli proeqtebi. maTi praqtikuli realizacia pirdapir kavSirSia ekologiur problemebTan, rac ara erTi samecniero disciplinis kvlevis mizans da obieqts warmoadgens.

ekologiur gamokvlevaTa saboloo produqtSi asaxul unda iqnes bunebriv da socialur-ekonomikur garemoSi mimdinare procesebis analizi, bunebisa da sazogadoebis urTierTdamokidebulebis masStabebi, Sedegebi da prognozuli mdgomareoba. amgvari TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania dargobriv sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebTan erTad, sameurneo proeqtTa landSaftur-ekologiuri safuZvlebis SemuSaveba, romelSic aisaxeba rogorc bunebriv da socialur-ekonomikur procesTa sivrce-droiTi analizi, aseve arsebuli ekologiuri viTareba da misi SesaZlo ganviTarebis xasiaTi.

bunebis Semadgenel geografiul komponentTa araTanabari ganawileba da funqcionireba geografiul (landSaftur) garsSi regionalur-tipologiuri TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba, romelTagan umniSvnelovanesia: zonaluroba (azonaluroba), mTlianoba, ritmuloba da sxva. maTi xasiaTi da srulyofileba uSualo kavSirSia abiotur faqtorebTan_geografiul adgilmdebareobasTan, teritoriis geologiur agebulebasTan, reliefis formebTan, siTbosa da tenis ganawilebasTan da a. S. geografiul (landSaftur) garsSi mkafiod aisaxeba cocxali da aracocxali bunebis da sazogadoebis yofiTi procesebis ekologiuri urTierTdamokidebuleba, romelsac kargad gamoxatuli globaluri, regionuli da lokaluri (teritoriuli) Taviseburebani gaaCniaT. geografiuli TvalsazrisiT teritoriuli diferenciaciis nebismieri erTeuli geografiuli komponentebis TanabarmniSvnelovani krebadobis saxiT unda ganixilebodes, anu imgvarad, roca geografiuli garsis teritoriuli saxesxvaobebi warmodgenilia mWidro urTierTobaSi da urTierTdamokidebulebaSi myofi geografiuli komponentebis sistemisagan.

landSafti Tavisi Sinaarsi teritoriuli kompleqsia, anu is ekologiuri sistemaa, romelsac axasiaTebs erTgvarovani geologiuri fundameti, hava, hidrologiuri reJimi, mcenareTa da cxovelTa samyaro, eTnogeografiuli Taviseburebani, ekonomikuri da socialuri aqtioba. landSafti, misi maStabidan gamomdinare, erTgvari sakvanZo safexuria im rTul ierarqiul kibeze, romlis saTaveSi mTeli geografiuli garsia warmodgenili, xolo qveda safexurad elementaruli bunebriv-teritoriuli kompleqsi gvevlineba.

landSafts axasiaTebs regionaluri da lokaluri diferenciacia, romelTa morfologiuri erTianoba ganpirobebulia nivTierebisa da energiis mudmivi gardaqmniT (funqcionirebiT). amis gamo nebismieri donis teritoriuli kompleqsi Sedgeba geografiuli komponentebis garkveuli krebadobisagan, romelsac gaaCnia formirebis istoria, struqtura, axasiaTebs bunebrivi Tu bunebriv-anTropogenuli reJimi, eTocikli da dinamiuri ganviTarebis tendencia. aRniSnuli Taviseburebis gamovlena da analizi warmoadgens landSaftmcodneobis, rogorc mecnierebis, kvlevis obieqts.

landSaftur-ekologiuri midgomis upiratesoba, rac Tavis mxriv gamoyenebiTi landSaftmcodneobis qvakuTxedia, mis kompleqsurobaSi mdgomareobs. gamoyenebiTi landSaftmcodneoba ki, Casaxuli konstruqciuli geografiis germanuli da rusuli samecniero skolebis wiaRSi, bunebriv da socialur-ekonomikur garemos misi Semadgeneli komponentebis (reliefi, hava, wylebi, mcenareTa da cxovelTa samyaro, socialur-ekonomikuri procesebi) erTianobaSi ganixilavs. landSafturi kvlevis arsi ara romelime komponentis upirates ganxilvas gulisxmobs (gansxvavebiT ekologiuri midgomisagan), aramed maTi TanabarmniSvnelovani struqturuli, funqcionaluri da dinamiuri urTierTdamokidebulebis Seswavlas.

landSafti teritoriuli sistemaa, romelSic urTierTda-kavSirebulia rogorc bunebrivi, aseve sazogadoebis moTxovnilebebiT ganpirobebuli anTropogenul-teqnogenuri elementebi. miuxedavad bunebrivi garemos anTropogenuli transformaciis Tanamedrove masStabebisa, landSafti viTardeba misTvis damaxasiaTebeli sivrce-droiTi kanonzomierebebiT. igi warmoadgens bunebriv-istoriul fenomens, romelSic teritoriuli sistemebis saxiT warmodgenilia geografiul garsSi mimdinare bunebriv da socialur-ekonomikur procesTa ekologiuri saxesxvaobani. geografiuli garsis amgvari (ekologiuri) diferenciacia mkafiod vlindeba im morfologiuri erTeulebis saxiT (faciesi, uroCiSCe, sanaxi, adgili, landSafturi nakveTi, bunebrivi zona, geografiuli provincia, qveyana da a.S.), romlebic warmoadgenen landSaftis sivrciTi organizaciis sistemur, kompleqsur formebs.

landSaftis Semadgenel komponentTa da morfologiur erTeulTa xarisxobrivad gansxvavebuli ekologiuri mdgomareoba, urTierTdamokidebuleba da teritoriuli organizacia warmoadgens landSaftur-ekologiur gamokvlevaTa ZiriTad arss. regionuli proeqtirebisa da dagegmarebis procesSi, romelic moicavs kompleqsur analizsa da prognozs, saWiroa ganisazRvros is problemuri situaciebi, romlebic proeqtis avtorebsa da eqspertebs miuTiTeben umTavresi regionalur-geografiuli, ekologiuri da garemosdacviTi sakixebis gadawyvetisaken.

dReisaTvis, landSaftur-ekologiur kvleva, romelsac mcire xnis istoria aqvs, yovel SemTvevaSi saqarTveloSi, moklebulia kvlevis meTodebsa da principebs; araaSeTanxmebuli geosistemebis ekologiuri Sefasebis kriteriumebi da maCveneblebi. mTavaria is, rom landSaftur-ekologiur kvleva aris kompleqsuri analizi, romelic ar izRudeba mxolod bunebrivi komponentebis ganxilviT, aramed misi mizania aCvenos is realuri mravalferovani urTierTkavSiri, romelic arsebobs mosaxleobas, meurneobasa da bunebas Soris.

landSaftur_ekologiuri kvleva ramdenime etapad unda ganxorcieldes, romelTagan umniSvnelovanesia: zogadgeografiuli, landSafturi, socialur-ekonomikuri, ekologiuri analizi da landSaftur-ekologiuri sinTezi.



zogadgeografiuli analizisas ganixileba sakvlevi regionis geografiuli mdebareoba, farTobi, sazRvrebi, uSualo mezobeli regionebi, zogadi fizikur-geografiuli, socialur-ekonomikuri da istoriul-geografiuli Taviseburebani.

landSafturi analizisas, romlis masStabic sakvlevi regionis farTobidan gamomdinareobs, Seiswavleba misi bunebriv-landSafturi potenciali, fizikur-geografiul komponentTa ganlagebis da dinamikis ZiriTadi xasiaTi, teritoriul kompleqsTa horizontaluri diferenciacia, vertikaluri struqtura, anTropogenuli transformaciis xarisxi da a. S.

bunebriv-landSafturi potenciali sivrce-droiTi kategoriaa, rac ganpirobebulia geosistemaTa bunebrivi TvisebebiT, anTropogenuli zemoqmedebis SedegebiT, teritoriis gamoyenebis formebiT da mimarTulebebiT. igi SeiZleba Seicvalos an transformirdes sazogadoebis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad, romelTa Soris Tanamedrove etapze ZiriTadia resursuli da ekologiuri, meorexarisxovani ki selitebuli da rekreaciuli moTxovnileba. bunebriv-landSaftur potencialad unda ganixilebodes rogorc tradiciuli, ise aratradiciuli (mzis, qaris, geoTermuli, selitebuli, rekreaciuli da sxv.) potenciali. amgvari midgoma amaRlebs landSaftis, rogorc komponenturi da kompleqsuri resursis, komponenturi da kompleqsuri potenciali Seswavlis landSaftur-ekologiur mniSvnelobas, rac Tanadroulad geografiul gamokvlevaTa integraciis myari safuZvelicaa.

bunebriv-landSafturi potencialis mniSvnelovani maxasiaTeblebia: reliefi da geologiuri agebuleba, hava da klimaturi resursebi, Siga wylebi da wylis resursebi, mcenareuloba da fitoresursebi, biomravalferovneba, cxovelTa samyaro da zooresursebi, niadagebi da miwis resursebi, landSaftebi da maTi mravalferovneba.

landSaftur –ekologiur gamokvlevebSi umniSvnelovanesia regionis socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis analizi, raSic mkafiod aisaxeba is viTareba, rac sabolood jamSi uSualod moqmedebs sakvlevi teritoriis landSaftur-ekologiur mdgomareobaze. mniSvnelovania isic, rom socialur-ekonomikuri informacia (demografiuli viTareba, ekonomikis dargebis mdgomareoba, socialuri foni) imgvarad iqnes ganlagebuli sivrcobrivad, rom maqsimalurad iqnes warmoCenili maTi landSafturi (regionuli) diferenciacia. amgvari analizi Tanadroulad unda Seicavdes istoriul, kulturul da rekreaciul faseulobaTa ganxilvasac, rac moqmedebs regionis landSaftur-ekologiur viTarebaze.

socialur-ekonomikur informaciidan mniSvnelovania: mosaxleobis raodenoba da simWidrove, dasaxlebuli punqtebis xalxmravloba, profesiuli struqtura, migracia, mrewvelobis ZiriTadi dargebis simZlavreebi da geografia, soflis meurneobis zonaluri specializacia, satransporto qselis Sedgeniloba da sixSire (gansakuTrebiT saavtomobilo da gzebis xasiaTi), mosaxleobis cxovrebis done, samomxmarebo kalaTa, jandacvis mdgomareoba, eTnokulturuli Taviseburebani, kulturul, eTnografiul da socialur dawesebulebaTa geografia.

regionis ekologiuri mdgomareobis analizi gulisxmobs ori urTierTdakavSirebuli sakiTxis: bunebrivi garemos ekologiuri mdgomareobisa da landSaftTa ekologiuri potencialis Seswavlas da SedarebiT analizs. bunebrivi garemos ekologiuri mdgomareobis analizSi igulisxmeba misi Semadgeneli geografiuli komponentebis ekologiur mdgomareobasTan da gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis ganxilva, xolo landSaftTa ekologiur potencialSi misi ganmsazRvreli pirobebis (klimatur-komfortuli da diskomfortuli hava, eqstremaluri klimaturi movlenebi, qaris siCqare da a.S.; wylis resursebis uzrunvelyofis done, bioturi faqtorebi produqtiuloba, tyianoba da sxva, geodinamiuri procesebis xasiaTi) gamovlena.

sakvlevi zogadgeografiuli, landSafturi, socialur-ekonomikuri da ekologiuri viTarebis gamovlenisa da analizis saboloo miazani landSaftur-ekologiuri sinTezia, romelic Tavis mxriv, ramdenime safexurisagan Sedgeba. landSaftur-ekologiuri sinTezis pirvel etapze dgindeba landSaftTa Tanamedrove mdomareobis xasiaTi (stuqturuli, dinamiuri, funqcionaluri da eTologiuri maxasiaTeblebis mdgomareobis mixedviT), landSaftebze zemoqmedebis ZiriTadi formebi, landSaftTa mdgradoba bunebrivi Tu anTropogenuri zemoqmedebis mimarT, landSaftTa potenciali. meore etapi landSaftTa socialur-ekonomikuri funqciebis gansazRvras gulisxmobs, romelTagan umniSvnelovanesia: resurswarmoebiTi, garemosaRmdgeni, garemosdacviTi, seliteburi da rekreaciuli funqciebi. landSaftur-ekologiuri sinTezis mesame etapi dagegmarebiTi xasiaTisaa da igi im RonisZiebaTa Catarebas gulisxmobs, romelTa mixedviTac landSafti SeZlebs Seasrulos is socialur-ekonomikuri funqcia, romelic gansazRvrulia sazogadoebis Tanamedrove an perspeqtiuli moTxovnilebiT.

landSaftur-ekologiuri midgomisa da kvlevis mniSvneloba ganusazRvrelad didia mecnierebisa da praqtikisaTvis. mecnieruli TvalsazrisiT igi araerTi disciplinis koordinaciis winapirobaa, xolo praqtikisaTvis sameurneo RonosZiebaTa kompleqsuri analizisa da dagegmarebis safuZveli. swored amitom, landSaftur-ekologiuri gamokvlevebi mticed ikidebs fexs im regionuli an saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis proeqtebis ganxorcielebaSi, romlebic uSualo kavSirSia bunebrivi garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebasTan.



landSaftis ekologiuri Taviseburebani
landSaftis struqtura. landSafti Tavisi arsiT bunebriv-teritoriuli kompleqsia, romelic warmoadgens im geografiul komponentTa sivrce-droiT sistemas, romelTa ganlageba da ganviTareba ganpirobebulia maTi urTierTdamokidebulebis ekologiuri TaviseburebebiT.

nebismieri rangis (planetaruli, regionaluri, lokaluri) bunebriv-teritoriul kompleqss gaaCnia struqtura, romelSic warmodgenilia, rogorc Semadgeneli komponentebi (elementebi), ise maTi urTierTkavSirebi, ganpirobebuli energiisa da informaciis mudmivi cvliT. Tanadroulad nebismieri bunebriv-teritoriuli kompleqsi Ria sistemaa, romelic dakavSirebulia mezobeli geosistemis funqcionirebasTan. geositemaTa funqcionirebis ZiriTadi xasiaTi ganpirobebulia geofizikuri da geoqimiuri procesebiT, rac uSualo kavSirSia nivTierebisa da energiis migraciis reJimTan. cnobilia amgvari reJimis xuTi tipi: avtonomiuri, transeluvialuri, transakumulaciuri, superakvaluri da akvaluri. migraciis reJimis sworad gansazRvra (profilireba) mTiani teritoriebis landSaftTa ekologiis umniSvnelovanesi momentia. landSafturi profilireba kompleqsuri fizikur-geogrfiuli kvlevis, dominirebul, morfologiur erTeulTa gamovlenis, landSaftur-eTologiuri kartografirebisa da struqtul-funqcionaluri nawilebis (geomasebis) gansazRvris safuZvelia.

geomasebi (aeromasebi, fitomasebi, mortmasebi, pedomasebi, liTomasebi, hidromasebi, biomasebi) xasiaTdebian garkveuli masiT, specifikuri, ekologiuri da funqcionaluri daniSnulebiT, sivrcesa da droSi cvalebadobis TaviseburebebiT. isini, maTi daniSnulebidan gamomdinare, iyofian tipebad, gvarebad, saxeebad da a.S. magaliTad, fitomasebSi warmodgenilia xemcenareebisa da buCqnarebis foTlebis, wiwvebis, balaxeuli safaris, fesvebis da sxva aqtiurad funqcionirebadi masebi; pedomasebi iyofa Tixnarobis, humusis Semcvelobis da sxva maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT.

geomasebis horizontaluri da vertikaluri krebadoba asaxavs landSaftis Sesabamis struqturas.

landSaftis vertikaluri struqtura aisaxeba geohorizontebis (erTgva-rovani geomasebis specifikuri krebadoba) ganlagebiT da SedgenilobiT bunebriv-teritoriuli kompleqsis vertikalur profilSi. vertikaluri struqturis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia: simZlavre (manZili zeda da qveda sazRvars Soris), sirTule (geohorizontTa raodenoba vertikalur profilSi) da daZabuloba (geohorizontTa raodenoba vertikaluri profilis 1 pirobiT metrze). geomasebis esa Tu is jgufi ganapirobebs vertikaluri struqturis xasiaTs, romlis mixedviTac gamoiyofa: fitogenuri (dominirebs mcenareuloba), postfitogenuri (dominirebs mortmasebi), hidrogenuli (dominirebs wyali nebismieri agregatuli formiT), pedogenuri, liTogenuri. umetes SemTxvevaSi vertikaluri struqturis tipebi Sereuli xasiaTisaa.

landSaftis horizontaluri struqtura, romelic ganpirobebulia landSaftTa funqcionirebiTa da ganviTarebiT, aisaxeba misi morfologiuri erTeulebis raodenobasa da mdgomareobaSi. landSaftTa mozaikis ganmapirobebeli faqtorebidan umniSvnelovanesia is egzogenuri geomorfo-logiuri faqtorebi (meqanikuri da qimiuri gamofitva, erozia da akumulacia, karsti, defliacia, mewyerebi da aS.), romlebic qmnian reliefis mezo da mikroformebis mravalferovnebas. maTi intensivoba mTian teritoriebze dakavSirebulia adgilis absolutur simaRlesTan, eqspoziciasTan, daxrilobasTan da reliefis formebTan.

horizontaluri struqturis ZiriTadi erTeulebia faciesi da uroCiSCe, xolo damatebiTad_sanaxi da adgili. faciesi elementaruli bunebriv-tertoriuli kompleqsia, romelic xasiaTdeba erTgvarovani adgilmdebareobiT, ekologiuri garemoTi da biocenoziT. mas moixseniebdnen rogorc: epimorfi, elementaruli landSafti, mikrolandSafti, biogeocenozi, ekosistema da sxva. uroCiSCe faciesebis SeuRlebuli sistemaa, romelic ganpirobebulia reliefis erTgvarovani mezoformiT, substratiT da fizikur-geografiuli procesebiT.

morfologiuri (horizontaluri) struqturis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia: sirTule (morfologiuri erTeulebis saxeobaTa raodenobis mixedviT; arsebobs martivi, saSualo, rTuli, Zalian rTuli landSaftebi), mravalferovneba (erTgvarovani, sxvadasxva raodenobis bunebriv-teritoriul kompleqsTa ricxvi).



landSaftis funqcionireba.

landSaftis funqcionireba SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc mravali elementaruli procesis erToblioba, romelTagan umniSvnelovanesia fizikuri (meqanikuri), qimiuri da biologiuri. amgvari procesebi landSaftmcodneobis specialuri mimarTulebis: landSaftTa geofizikis, landSaftTa geoqimiis da geobiocenologiis kvlevis sagania. landSaftur-ekologiuri TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania zemoT aRniSnuli procesebisa da samecniero mimarTulebis sinTezi, radganac maTi umravlesoba imgvaradaa urTierTdakavSirebuli geografiul garemoSi, rom erTis mimdinareobis xasiaTi ganapirobebs meores (an mesames) intensiobis xarisxs.

landSaftSi nivTierebisa da energiis transformacia sami umniSvnelovanesi ciklis: mzis energiis transformaciis, tenbrunvisa da biogeociklis meSveobiT xorcieldeba. maT garda aRsaniSnavia: mizidulobasTan dakavSirebulisimZimis Zalis transformacia, gravigenuli nakadebi, biogenuri komponentebis migracia da sxv.

landSaftTa funqcionirebis detaluri Seswavla SesaZlebelia mxolod stacionaluri gamokvlevebisas, Tumca garkveuli procesebis gamovlena eqspediciuri gamokvlevebis drosacaa SesaZlebeli.

mzis energiis transformacia landSaftTa ekologiis, landSaftTa energetikis TaviseburebaTa mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia. mzis energiis cvalebadobasTan dakavSirebulia funqcionirebis wliuri, sezonuri, dekaduri xasiaTi. mzis radiaciis raodenobrivi maCveneblebi, radiaciuli balansi pirdapir kavSirSia qvefenili zedapiris TaviseburebebTan da meteorologiur pirobebTan.

tenbrunvis raodenobriv-xarisxobrivi maCveneblebi mniSvnelovani sivrce-droiTi cvalebadobiT gamoirCevian, gansxvavdebian landSaftebis mixedviT da damokidebulni arian mzis energiis transformaciaze, naleqebis raodenobaze da fizikur-geografiul pirobebze. fizikur-geografiuli pirobebidan umniSvnelovanesia mcenareuli safari, romelic pirdapir kavSirSia zedapirul CamonadenTan da Sesabamisad, landSaftis wylis resursul da energetikul potencialTan. magaliTad, Camonadenis koeficienti Semdegnairad icvleba: 0,04 (savanebi); 0,12 (stepebi); 0,30 (farTofoTlovani tyeebi); 0,40 (wiwvovani tyeebi); 0,50 (teniani ekvatoruli tyeebi).

biogeocikli, Tavisi arsiT, biogeoqimiuri, produqciuli procesia, romlis intensivoba damokidebulia fizikur_geografiul pirobebze. biogeociklis intensivoba kargad aisaxeba iseT maCveneblebze, rogoricaa fitomasa, pirveladi produqcia, cxovelTa mier fitomasis moxmareba, cxovelTa biomasa da sxv.

landSaftTa funqcionirebis analizi mniSvnelovani etapia landSaftur-ekologiuri gamokvlevis, landSafTa struqturisa da potencialis, landSaftTa ,,yofiTi" Taviseburebebis Seswavlis procesSi.

landSaftur-ekologiur gamokvlevaTa saboloo produqti landSaftTa socialur-ekonomikuri funqciebis dadgenaa. landSaftTa socialur-ekonomikuri funqciebi ganisazRvreba: 1. sazogadoebis Tanamedrove moTxovnebi (perspe-qtivaSic) da 2. landSaftTa potencialiT da ekologiuri viTarebiT. saqarTveloSi im landSafTa raodenoba, romelic Sedis pirvel jgufSi, mniSvnelovnad aRemateba meore jgufisas. sazogadoebis moTxovnebiTaa Seqmnili agro, seliteburi da rekreaciuli landSaftebi, daculi teritoriebi, hidroteqnikuri nagebobani da a.S., romlebic garkveulwilad ar iTvaliswineben landSaftis realur potencials, geoekologiur viTarebas da Sesabamisad, socialur-ekonomikur funqcias.

landSaftis potencialisa (bioturi, wylis, mineralur-resursuli, TviTwmendis da sxv.) da landSaftur-ekologiuri viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT, misi socialur-ekonomikuri funqcia SesaZlebelia iyos: resurswarmoebiTi _ dakavSirebulia meurneobis calkeul dargebTan. saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad warmodgenilia vakis, gorak-borcvebis da qvabulebis landSaftTa saxiT, agrTve moicavs subalpuri da alpuri landSaftebis nawils; garemosaRmdgeni _ dakavSirebulia ekologiur viTarebasTan da garemos mdgomareobasTan. warmodgenilia tyis qveda, Sua da zeda mTis landSaftebis saxiT; garemosdacviTi _ dakavSirebulia teritoriis sanitarul, wyaldacviT, niadagdacviT mniSvnelobasTan, TviTgawmendis unarTan, biomravalferovnebasTan. ZiriTadad warmodgenilia nakrZalebsa da erovnul parkebSi arsebuli lanSaftebis, subalpuri da alpuri zonebis, xeluxlebeli tyeebis saxiT: seliteburi _ dakavSirebulia sacxovrebel infrastruqturasTan da mis gafarToebasTan. warmodgenilia gorak-borcviani landSaftebis nawilis, mdinareTa terasebisa da msxvili saqalaqo dasaxlebebis teritoriebis saxiT; rekreaciuli _ dakavSirebulia sakurorto meurneobasTan, turizmTan, istoriul RirsSesaniSnaobebTan, warmodgenilia Savi zRvis sanapiro zonis, tyisa da subalpuri landSaftebis sasazRvro nawilebis saxiT, msxvili saqalaqo dasaxlebebisa da wyalsatevebis siaxloves.

landSafts SeuZlia Seasrulos erTi an ramdenime socialur-ekologiuri funqcia, romelic SeiZleba Seicvalos sazogadoebis moTxovnaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, ekologiuri viTarebisa da bunebrivi procesebis mimdinareobis mixedviT. landSaftTa socialur-ekonomikuri funqciebis gansazRvra da prognozireba aucilebelia landSaftTa dagegmarebisaTvis, monitoringisaTvis, miwaTsargeblobis zonirebisa da proeqtirebisaTvis, landSaftis arqiteqturisa da saxelmwifos regionuli politikis racionaluri gansazRvrisaTvis.

a m b r o l a u r i s r a i o n i
zogadgeografiuli da istoriuli Taviseburebani

ambrolauris raioni mdebareobs dasavleT saqarTvelos erT-erT ulamazes istoriul-geografiul provinciaSi - raWaSi. samxareo dayofis mixedviT igi miekuTvneba raWa-leCxumi-qvemo svaneTis administraciul regions. raioni mdebareobs kavkasionis samxreT ganStoebaTa da raWis qeds Soris, mdinare rionis auzSi, dasavleT saqarTvelos Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilSi. aRmosavleTiT mas esazRvreba onis, dasavleTiT cageris, CrdiloeTiT - lentexis, samxreT-aRmosavleTiT saCxeris raionebi, samxreTiT - tyibulis, wyaltubosa da WiaTuris zonebi.

raionis teritoriis farTobi 1142 km2-ia, rac respublikis teritoriis 1,6%-ia. raionis centria qalaqi ambrolauri (qalaqi 1966 wlidan, raionuli da saqalaqo sakrebulos centri). ambrolauris raionSi Sedis 1 qalaqi (ambrolauri), 1 daba (xarisTvala) da 18 sasoflo sakrebulo (bugeuli, velevi, znakva, lixeTi, namanevi, nikorwminda, sadmeli, sxvava, RadiSi, wesi, caxi, WeliaRele, Wrebalo, WyviSi, xvanWkara, xidikari, xotevi), romelSic gaerTianebulia 70 sofeli. qalaqi ambrolauri gaSenebulia md. rionis da krixulas SesarTavTan, z.d. 550 m-ze. tyibulidan (uaxloesi rkinigzis sadguri) manZili 43 km-ia, quTaisidan 96 km, Tbilisidan 285 km.

raWaSi mosaxleoba qvis xanaSive dasaxlebula. igi uZvelesi droidanve miwadmoqmedebasTan erTad liTonebis damuSavebasac misdevda. maRalmTian soflebSi mikvleulia spilenZis, brinjaosa da dariSxanis damuSavebis araerTi kera.

X saukunis bolos Seiqmna raWis saerisTao, romelic Sedioda imereTis samefos SemadgenlobaSi. raWis saerisTao XVIII saukunemde moixsenieba. 1810 wels raWa imereTis samefosTan erTad SeierTa ruseTis imperiam, 1840 wels ewoda raWis mazra (imereTis guberniis SemadgenlobaSi).

werilobiT wyaroebSi ambrolauri me-17 saukunidan moixsenieba. igi imereTis mefeTa erT-erTi rezidencia iyo. aq iyo samefo sasaxlis kompleqsi, saidanac eklesiisa da koSkis nangrevebi SemorCa.



bunebis komponentebi
reliefi

raionis teritorias samxreTidan esazRvreba raWis qedi. raioni Sedis kavkasionis naoWa sistemis samxreTi ferdobis zonaSi, romelic ZiriTadad agebulia iuriuli da carculi TixafilebiT, kirqvebiT, qviSaqvebiT, mergelebiTa da mesameulis TabaSiriani TixebiT. reliefi umetesad saSualo da maRalmTiani mTa-xeobebia. samxreT da samxreT-dasavleTi sazRvari gasdevs raWis qeds, romlis CrdiloeTi kalTa ambrolauris raionSi Sedis. CrdiloeTidan Semofarglulia leCxumis qediT (ZiriTadi mwvervalebi: samercxle-3562 m, WuTxaro-3562 m, kareta-3354 m, lexuniswveri 3216 m), xolo Crdilo-aRmosavleTidan, mdinareebis: luxuniswyalisa da sakauris wyalgamyofze warmodgenilia leCxumisa da raWis qedebis ganStoebebiT. hifsometriulad yvelaze dabali adgili raWis qvabulis samxreT-dasavleTi nawilia (zR.d. 500 m). reliefis CamoyalibebaSi teqtonikur da eroziul procesebTan erTad mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa meoTxeulma gamyinvarebam. leCxumis qedis mwvervalebze SemorCenilia myinvarebi da Zveli gamyinvarebis niSnebi (karebi, cirkebi da sxva). raionisTvis damaxasiaTebelia reliefis karstuli formebi.

ambrolauris raioni mTiani regionia. reliefis zedapiri Zlier danawevrebula md. rionisa da misi Senakadebis mier. reliefis danawevrebis siRrme raWis qvabulSi 500–700 metria. calkeuli orografiuli erTeulebis mixedviT ki maqsimaluria (2000-2300 m.) leCxumis qedze _ WuTxaro-samercxles midamoebSi.

reliefis ZiriTadi morfologiuri erTeulebi teqtonikuri da egzogenuri procesebis urTierTqmedebiT aris Seqmnili. teqtonikur-eroziuli reliefis ZiriTadi foni garTulebulia myinvaruli, karstuli, gravitaciuli da sxva warmoSobis formebiT.

ambrolauris raionis reliefi Zlier diferencirebul moZraobas ganicdis. amis mizezi raWa-leCxumis sinklinia, romelic struqturul ,,bufers’’ warmoadgens. aq erTmaneTs ejaxebian ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego mimarTulebis struqturebi - kavkasioni da saqarTvelos belti. aRsaniSnavia, rom teqtonikuri stuqturebi erTmaneTisagan gamoyofilia rRvevis xazebiT an SecocebebiT. Tanamedrove reliefi, saerTo azevebis fonze, gansxvavebul moZraobebs ganicdis. maRali aqtivobiT (azeveba 2_4 mm/weliwadSi) gamoirCeva raWa-leCxumis sinklinis frTebi da baiosis porfiritebs Soris gamyofi rRvevis xazebi. swored mas ukavSirdeba aqtiuri seismoteqtonikuri zonebi mZlavri miwisZvrebis gamovlinebiT (6-8 bali). miwisZvrebis Sedegad Zlieri kldezvavebi fiqsirdeba raWis qedis kirqviani zolis kideebze. bolo wlebSi Catarebuli gamokvlevebiT dadginda, rom raWis qedi vertikalurTan erTad ganicdis horizontalur gadaadgilebas Crdilo-aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT (xotevi-2,9 mm/weliwadSi). aseTi moZraobebi gamowveulia kavkasionis qveS saqarTvelos beltis SecocebiT.

ambrolauris raionis reliefis iersaxis CamoyalibebaSi teqtonikur, eroziul-akumulaciur procesebTan erTad aqtiuria Tanamedrove da Zveli gamyinvareba.

maRalmTiani reliefi xasiaTdeba kldovani, dakbiluli formebiT. intensiuri fizikuri gamofitva xels uwyobs mcvivanis konusebis, qedis ferdobebze reliefis didi energia da intensiuri gamofitviTi procesebi ki mZlavri Rvarcofebis ganviTarebas.

saSualomTiania raWis qedis kirqviani masivi. karstuli formebi gamosaxulia ZabrebiT da WebiT. mRvimeebidan aRsaniSnavia: sxvavis, nikorwmindis, caxis da sxv. zogierTi mRvime morTulia stalaqtitebiT, stalagmitebiT, svetebiT, fardebiT da sxv. is mdinareebi, romlebic kirqvian zolSi gaedinebian, Rrma kanionebs aCenen (xoteviswyali, krixula, Sareula). raWis qedze gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia Saoris qvabuli. Saoris tafobis Ziri karstuli e.w. ,,polie"-a. dRes igi wyalsacavs ukavia.

raWis qvabulis (sofel wesidan qviSaramde) ferdobebze mimdinare aqtiuri mewyruli procesebi dakavSirebulia oligocen-miocenuri asakis TixebTan, qviSaqvebTan da nawilobriv, kirqvebTan. mewyrebi gansakuTrebiT farTod aris warmodgenili raWis qedis Crdilo ferdobebze da leCxumis qedze. aqtivobiT gamoirCeva bugeulis, Corjos, xvanWkaras, JoSxis, znakvis, abanoeTis mewyruli sxeulebi. mTel meoTxeulSi mewyrebi cvlidnen reliefis morfologias da dResac did zians ayeneben regions. raWis qvabulSi fragmentebis saxiT Semonaxulia sxvadasxva asakis terasebis mTeli speqtri. qvabulis Ziri mdinare rionis Tanamedrove aluviuri naleqebiTaa dafaruli. maTi sisqe 40-60 metrs aRwevs.

raWis qvabulSi kargad aris ganviTarebuli Rvarcofebi, romlebic Sereuli genezisaa. aqtiuri Rvarcofebi dakavSirebulia mewyruli procesebis gaaqtiurebasTan. rionis orive mxareze mZlavri gamozidvis konusebia. droebiTi nakadebis eroziuli moqmedeba xSirad ganapirobebs mcire zomis mewyrebis warmoqmnas droebiTi, stabiluri da Zveli, potenciuri mewyrebis sxeulze.

qvemo raWis reliefi Zlier anTropogenur zemoqmedebas ganicdis. am mxriv gamoirCeva raWis qvabuli. xSirad Rvarcofebis da mewyrebis gaaqtiureba anTropogenur procesebTan aris dakavSirebuli. raWis qvabulis Zirze aqtiuri eroziis gverdiT, akumulaciuri procesebi aRiniSneba. xeobis Zirze farTo Walebis ganviTareba dakavSirebulia reliefis diferenciul moZraobasTan. akumulaciuri procesebis Sedegad xeobis Zirzed aluviuri masala 5-10 sm/weliwadSi siCqariT grovdeba.
sasargeblo wiaRiseuli
sasargeblo wiaRiseuliT ambrolauris raioni Zalzed Raribia. erTaderT mniSvnelovan sabados warmoadgens luxunis dariSxanis sabado, romlis eqspluatacia 1932 wlidan mimdinareobs. igi Zvirfasi produqtia eleqtronul manqanaTmSenoblobaSi, Tumca misi mopoveba amJamad ar mimdinareobs. ambrolauris raionSi gamovlenilia Zvirfasi samSeneblo da mosapirkeTebeli masalebis: granitis, TabaSiris, kirqvis, teSenitis mniSvnelovani sabadoebi, romelTa eqsploatacia SeiZleba ganxorcieldes Ria karieruli wesiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom adgilobrivi TabaSiri iTvleba Zalzed maRalxarisxovnad da didi moTxovnilebiT sargeblobs faifuris mrewvelobaSi.

dekoraciul-mosapirkeTebeli qvis sabadoebidan aRsaniSnavia znakvis (maragi 6048 aTasi m3) da ambrolauris kirqvis sabado (maragi - 3140 aTasi m3), saagure Tixis _ ambrolaurSi (190 aTasi m3), samSeneblo qvis - naqeralas (maragi 70 mln m3) da maxaraulis (62 mln m3) sabadoebi.

bevria samkurnalo-mineraluri wyaro (uravi, Wrebalo, qveSvake, xidikari da sxv.), Tumca maT ar gaaCniaT samrewvelo mniSvneloba.
Hh a v a
geografiuli mdebareobidan gamomdinare, ambrolauris raionis (qvemo raWis) klimati gardamavalia zomiersa da notio subtropikuls Soris. administraciuli raionis mdebareoba ZiriTadad saSualomTian hifsometriul zonaSi da misi Savi zRvis mimarTulebiT eqspoziciuri orientacia gansazRvravs mis teritoriaze notio subtro-pikuli havis tipis dominirebas. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom ambrolauris raionSi klimaturi Taviseburebebi mTiani regionebSi hidrometeorologiur parametrTa ganawilebis kanonzomierebas eqvemdebareba. amitomaa, rom am raionSi havis yvela parametrs (atmosferuli naleqi, haeris temperatura, atmosferuli wneva, mzis radiacia, haeris sinotive, qaris xasiaTi, haeris masebis tipebi, niadagis zedapiris temperatura) mkveTrad gamoxatuli simaRliTi zonaloba axasiaTebs.

ambrolauris raionis dabalmTianeTSi zomierad civ zamTriani da SedarebiT cxel zafxuliani havis tipia gabatonebuli, maRalmTiani zonisaTvis ki uxvTovliani mTis notio havaa damaxasiaTebeli. haeris saSualo wliuri temperatura 9 - 100-ia (dabal zonaSi), zogan ki 4 - 50 (mTianeTSi). raionis dabal nawilSi ianvris saSualo temperatura 1.5 - 40 ia, ivlisisa ki 18 - 24 - is farglebSi meryeobs. atmosferuli naleqebis wliuri raodenoba 1000 - 1500 mm -ia, mTebSi ki es parametri 1600 - 1800 mm - aRwevs. orografiuli daxSulobis gamo, ambrolauris raionSi atmosferuli naleqebis raodenoba naklebia, vidre dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva regionebis vakeebsa da mTiswinebSi. zamTari aq adre iwyeba. pirveli yinvebi mosalodnelia noembris dasawyisSi, bolo ki aprilis damdegsac emTxveva. uyinvo periodis xangrZlioba 170 - 200 dRes Seadgens. am periodSi dagrovil aqtiur temperaturaTa jami 35000 aRwevs, rac xelsayrel pirobebs qmnis mevenaxeobis ganviTarebisaTvis.

ambrolauris raionis teritoriaze ramdenime meteorologiuri sadguri da meteopostia. maTgan amJamad mxolod ambrolauris meteosadguri funqcionirebs, sadac xdeba ZiriTad parametrebze dakvirveba. igi ambrolauris aerodromze, md. rionis marjvena terasaze mdebareobs.

ambrolauris administraciuli raionis klimatur Taviseburebebs ori ZiriTadi faqtori ganapirobebs:



  1. reliefi, romelic gansakuTrebuli kontrastulobiTa da maRali, (rogorc vertikaluri, ise horizontaluri) danawevrebiT gamoirCeva:

  2. raionis hifsometriuli gavrceleba, romelic 500-dan 3800-mde meryeobs. igi daqselilia Rrma viwrobebiT, rac xels uSlis haeris masebis moZraoba-gavrcelebas.

gansakuTrebiT saintereso suraTs iZleva ambrolauris raionis klimatur TaviseburebaTa da faqtorTa analizi 1 : 100 000 masStabis topografiuli rukis safuZvelze. Tu gavaanalizebT raionis toposafuZvels, davrwmundebiT, rom raionis mTel teritoriis umetesi farTobi samxreTuli da samxreT-dasavleTuri eqspoziciis ferdobebs uWiravs, rac Tavis mxriv ganapirobebs mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi zomierad Tbil amindebs. raionSi garkveuli farTobi ukaviaT iseT ferdobebs an arealebs, romlebic Tavisi CrdiloeTuri an Crdilo- dasavluri eqspoziciis gamo SedarebiT didxans inarCuneben Tovlis safars. rionis xeoba (ZiriTadi mdinaris gaswvriv) warmoadgens erTgvar mTavar `klimatur quCas~ ambrolauris raionisTvis. swored am gziT moZraoben haeris sxvadasxva tipis masebi raionis mTel teritoriaze. imereTidan rionis xeobiT (miuxedvad xeobis zogierT monakveTis siviwrovisa) iWreba notio haeris masebi, romelic gansazRvravs mTeli raionis teritoriaze tenis ganawilebas. xixaTis qedi, romelic sasazRvroa ambrolaurisa da onis administraciul raionebs Soris, ganapirobebs teniT raionis normalur momaragebas. amis gamoa, rom rionis terasebze an mimdebare ferdobebze naleqi meti modis da zafxuli SedarebiT grilia, vidre mdinareebis: askiswylis, Sareulas, riceulas, luxuniswylisa da krixulas xeobebSi. ambrolaurSi da mis SemogarenSi naleqebi weliwadSi saSualod 1200-1300 mm-ia. erTgvari kontinenturobiT xasiaTdeba md.Saraulas xeoba, sadac Warbobs Crdilo-aRmosavleTi eqspoziciis ferdobebi. rogorc raionis klimaturi parametrebis analizi gviCvenebs, aq kargadaa gamoxatuli mikroklimaturi arealebi. isini mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi TavianTi avtonomiurobiT gamoirCevian. aseT, erTgvar `klimatur kunZulTa~ Sorisaa Saoris+ qvebuli. ambrolauris raionis es ubani samxreT-dasavleTi da samxreT-aRmosavleTi mxridan Caketilia naqeralas qediT, xolo dasavleTidan igive naqeralas qedis erT-erTi ganStoebiT, romelic sofel Txmors gamoyofs Saoris qvabulisagan. qvabuli V -seburad gaxsnilia okribis (tyibulis raioni) mxridan, saidanac xdeba teniani haeris masebis SemoWra. isini qvabulis teritoriaze mTlianad gamoyofen naleqebs. amitomaa, rom qvabulis teritoria raionSi erT-erT yvelaze uxvnaleqiania. aq naleqian dReTa ricxvi 183-ia, rac rekordulia raWisTvis. danestianebis koeficienti Saoris qvabulSi 2.3 Seadgens, rac mTeli saqarTvelos teritoriisaTvis erT-erT umaRles maCvenebels warmoadgens. es gamowveulia ubnis CaketilobiTa da hifsometriuli faqtoriT (absoluturi simaRle 1130 m). aq uxvi naleqebi ver aswrebs aorTqlebas SedarebiT dabali temperaturis gamo da teritoria maqsimalurad teniandeba. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, Saoris qvabuls `raWis cimbirad ~ moixsenieben. aq ianvris temperatura zogjer -- 400-mde ecema, xolo Tovlis safari didi simZlavriTa da xangZliobiT gamoirCeva.




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