Pedagogical and psychological bases of learning a foreign language

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Karimjanova Mukhlisabonu

Pedagogical and psychological bases of learning a foreign language.
Jizzakh region Jizzakh State Pedagogical Institute, Faculty of Foreign Languages ​​1st year student Karimjanova Mukhlisabonu Sobirjon kizi
Annotation: Nowadays, at the non-philological institutions the study of English occupies the important place and is an important component in training specialists for different branches of our country. The purpose of this article is to analyze didactic-pedagogical basis of teaching foreign languages. Currently the introduction of the innovative methods to the sphere of teaching English has become important and has a great practical significance. The article gives synopsis and analysis of modern tools in the field of teaching English for Special Purposes.Certainly, teachers for Specific Purposes share a terrific deal for all intents and cause with instructors. For each it is essential to suppose about phonetic development and instructing speculations, to have bits of information in modernday ideas recognizing their personal function and job simply as the function, furthermore to confront new improvements provided as a information to enhance their strategy in language learning. The requirements understand the conditions of specific callings and readiness to modify these conditions separate the unknown dialect educators to express functions and their pals displaying time-honored unknown dialect. They are characterized by paradigmatic (associative) and syntagmatic connections and relationships that determine their role and place in the language system. Language units are the content of this component. Aimed at ESP educating presumes instructing of English as an unknown dialect with respect to explicit calling, subject or reason. The goal of teaching a foreign language never completely coincides with the result (a student only approaches it, to a certain extent) more or less. It is necessary to take care of the attractiveness of the goal for schoolchildren, maintaining their sense of success, creating and maintaining the need to achieve the goal. This requires a teacher to have a good command of a whole range of professionally significant skills and abilities.
Key words: English for specific purposes, methodology, information-communication technologies (ICT), multimedia technologies, web-quest.
For the first time, “General Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages” demonstrated in 1967 that native and foreign languages are distinct academic subjects. At the same time, native and foreign languages are distinct. The native language is studied in the environment: at home, at school, on the street, people speak this language. L.S. Vygotsky wrote: “The assimilation of a foreign language follows a path that is directly opposite to that of the development of the native language. A child learns his native language unconsciously and unintentionally, and a foreign language– starting with awareness and intention. We can say that the development of the native language goes from bottom to top, while the development of a foreign language goes from top to bottom” (Vygotsky L.S). There is no such environment when teaching a foreign language. A foreign language environment must be specially created and modeled. The child already practically speaks his native language, he knows how to communicate orally. By the 1st grade, he already masters the skills of reading and writing. A child comes to school for knowledge. As for a foreign language, the child does not yet have the skills and abilities to communicate in a new language. Hemust acquire such skills and abilities. They will be the main objectives of a foreign language learning. Knowledge of the rules for using the forms of the target language is a side task. A foreign language becomes the goal of learning. In addition, speech in the target language also becomes a means of teaching it. The teaching of English for Special Purposes (ESP) has been regarded as a distinct activity within the English language teaching (ELT). It is accepted that for a portion of its encouraging, ESP has developed its own philosophy, and its research draws on inquiry from various trains, including applied phonetics – this is the key distinguishing feature of ESP. ESP, despite the fact that it has occasionally been deviated from the established patterns of ELT, has consistently been concerned with needs investigation and training students to impart successfully in the assignments prescribed by their field of study or work circumstance. The emphasis of ELT is consistently on practical outcomes. The ESP hypothesis could be sketched out based on the explicit nature of the writings that students require information on or the need for related nature of educating. As with most disciplines in human activity, ESP was a phenomenon grown out of a number of converging trends of which we will mention three most important: 1) the expansion of demand for English to suit specific needs of a profession, 2) developments in the field of linguistics (attention shifted from defining formal language features to discovering the ways in which language is used in real communication, causing the need for the development of English courses for specific group of learners), and 3) educational psychology (learner’s needs and interests have an influence on their motivation and effectiveness of their learning). Definitions of ESP in the literature are relatively late in time, if we assume that ESP began in the 1960s. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) define ESP as an approach rather than a product – meaning that ESP does not involve a particular kind of a language, teaching material or methodology. ESP is normally ‘goal-directed’, and ESP courses develop from needs analysis aiming at specifying what exactly it is that students have to do through the medium of English, and a number of characteristics which explain that ESP courses are generally constrained by a limited time period in which their objectives have to be achieved and are taught to adults in homogenous classes in terms of the work or specialist studies that the students are involved in. Each of these definitions have validity but also weaknesses. Considering Hutchinson and Water’s definition, Anthony (1997) noted that it is not clear where ESP courses end and General English courses begin because numerous non-specialist ESP instructors use ESP approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis of learners' needs and their own specialty personal knowledge of English for real communication. Streven’s definition, by referring to the content in the second absolute characteristic, may confirm the impression held by many teachers that ESP is always and necessarily related to a subject content. The significant component in ESP instructing is the capacity of an educator to make a study hall environment for live correspondence and useful discussion [Alyavdina N.G., 2013; 56]. Understudies get steady relational abilities just when they have the chance to utilize them to speak with others. In this manner, the an instructor ought to create and utilize powerful methods for the advancement of relational abilities in their gatherings, just as to include in the work different assets, including the online assets of the Web to support correspondence outside the homeroom dividers. Individuals are simpler to gain proficiency with an unknown dialect when they are exceptionally energetic and can utilize their insight and abilities in the language condition that they comprehend and that are intriguedTheoretical foundations of methods of teaching foreign languages. Having the process of teaching foreign languages as the object of the research, the methodology cannot exist and develop fruitfully without close connection with a broad circle o sciences, the knowledge of which constitutes the theoretical foundations of the FL methodology. The development of the methodology is based on basic and related sciences. The role of each of these sciences for methodology is determined by the nature of the relationship with it [Chernilevskiy D.V., 2002; 437].Such sciences as linguistics, psychology, pedagogy are in a closer connection with methodology than other sciences. Therefore, they are called basic for the technique sciences. The data from the basic sciences are used by the methodology to form their own research and teaching concepts. The data of the basic sciences form the following basis of the methodology:1. Methodological foundations: the study of various theoretical approaches that make it possible to conduct a research on the problems of methodology, a critical analysis of the relationship between the theory and practice of teaching foreign languages, the identification of dark spots that exist in the research problems.2. Linguistic foundations: the methodology is based on the data and patterns of linguistics – the science of language, since the language – the subject of instruction is studied by linguistics. Linguistics describes the basic properties of a particular language, formulates them in rules that are actively used by the methodology in the development of specific training models. A typical example in this regard is the use of the linguistic models technique to create a system of speech patterns.3. Psychological foundations: the connection of the methodology with psychology is carried out in two directions:– in the line of educational psychology, which explores the ways of forming knowledge, skills, abilities, the implementation of higher mental functions in the learning process. An important role for the development of methodological research is played, for example, by the theory skills and abilities, developed in psychology, personality theory, etc.– in the line of using data from the psychology of speech (psycholinguistics or linguo psychology). Studying the problems of teaching speech activity in a foreign language, the methodology actively uses materials and methodology of both general psychology and its private sections. So, in the formation of modern methodological concepts it played, for example, the theory of speech mechanisms developed by prominent Russian psychologists L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, A.A. Leontiev, I.A. Winter.It should be remembered that, using general psychological concepts, the technique refines them on the basis of its own subject and enriches the general psychological theory of activity with such specific categories as speech skill. Therefore, the connection between the methodology and psychology should be understood not as an elementary use of psychological theory by the methodology, but as bilateral dialectical relations conducive to mutual clarification, supplementation and enrichment of theories of sciences.
4. Didactic and pedagogical foundations: the methodology is based on the general provisions of didactics and the theory of education, correlating with them as a particular with a general, for didactics formulates the laws, principles and rules of teaching and education in general, and the methodology concretizes these provisions in relation to the academic subject “foreign language”. Thus, the nature of the connection between didactics and methodology can be defined as the relationship of a general theory to a particular form of its implementation on the material specific subject, since methodology and didactics have common basic categories that make up the conceptual apparatus of both sciences. The common can also be traced in their basic didactic principles.
In the textbook “Methods of teaching foreign languages: traditions and modernity” the authors suggest, based on a personality-oriented approach, four interrelated blocks in the content of language teaching:A. Block 1. Units of language and speech: from sound and letter to complete text (material aspect of teaching).B. Block 2. Subjects of speech (the ideal aspect of the content of training. What we talk, listen, read, and write.C. Block 3. Speech actions with the above units in order to solve educational, cognitive and communicative tasks in the process of speaking, listening, reading, writing (procedural and activity aspect of the content of training, which also includes compensatory and educational skills).D. Block 4. Feelings and emotions caused by the interaction of the selected components of the content and creating a favorable learning and educational environment (motivational and value-orientational aspect of the content of training). This block is presented in detail in the research by S.V. Chernyshov.The researcher A.N. Shchukin points out that currently the selection of a content is carried out on the basis of two principles: 1) the necessity and sufficiency of the content to achieve the set learning goal; 2) the availability of a training content to achieve the goal of training.The most urgent consideration of the problem of the content of training is the question of how to ensure such a methodological organization of the material that would enable combining the communicative-activity approach to training with the systematization of educational material. One of the directions for solving the problem lies in the organization of training, taking into account the communicative needs of students, based on the content of intentions. This is the point of view of M.N. Vyatyutnev. E.I. Passov suggests starting with problems that can be discussed in language classes. The problem, according to the scholar, is a way of organizing the subject content of communication.
In conclusion, it is important to outline that ESP has traditionally been divided into has two main areas according to when they take place: 1) English for Academic Purposes (EAP) involving pre-experience, simultaneous/in-service and post-experience courses, and 2) English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) for study in a specific discipline (pre-study, in-study, and post-study) or as a school subject (independent or integrated).Completing the consideration of the problem of selecting the content of teaching a foreign language as an academic subject, it is necessary to formulate the requirements that are imposed on it. They can be as follows: 1. To be feasible, to meet the interests and needs of modern schoolchildren, to familiarize them with the cultural heritage of both their own country and other countries. The content of the training must be authentic. It is designed to form a holistic picture of the world in schoolchildren, to contribute to their socialization. 2. Appeal to the personal experience of schoolchildren, to their feelings and emotions, encourage comparison and promote the development of critical thinking; encourage the expression of their own opinions, assessments and stimulate the development of value orientations, as well as the full development of the individual as a whole. 3. To be characterized by some redundancy, which creates real conditions for a differentiated and individual approach to schoolchildren, taking into account their needs, abilities and capabilities. 4. Stimulate the subject position of schoolchildren in learning, provide for problematic presentation of information, encourage students to observe, reflect, make independent conclusions and generalizations, aim them at an independent search for information, including the use of Internet resources. 5. To promote the development of the need for continuous self-education and self-development, reflection (self-observation, self-control, self-esteem), as well as to promote self-determination and self-realization of schoolchildren. The selected content in teaching a foreign language is subject to clarification and concretization at each stage of education (primary, secondary, senior). It is important here to maintain continuity in the material studied, to expand and update it (the principle of concentrism in the assimilation of educational material).
1. Alyavdina, N.G. & Margaryan, T.D. (2013). Innovative techniques of English language for specific purposes in technical colleges. Humanitarian journal, 7.
2. Basturkmen, H. (2008). Ideas and options in English for specific purposes. Taylor and Francis e-library. Teaching ESP: Best Practices. IBM PC CD-ROM: Published by “Repetitor Multi Media” for the English Language Office of the US Embassy. Moscow.
3. Bernshtein, N.A. (2011). Trigger mechanism of any activity.
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